Darkness to Light Home Page
Additional Books and eBooks by the Director
Analytical-Literal Translation of the Old Testament
The Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical Books
Translated by Gary F. Zeolla, the Director of Darkness to Light
This fifth and final volume of the ALT: OT contains the “extra” books found in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles as compared to Jewish and Protestant Bibles. There is much debate on whether these books are inspired by God or not. Only by reading them in a literal translation can you make a decision on this controversial issue. These books were written from 200 B. C. to 50 A.D. So whether inspired or not, they provide insight into Jewish history and thought shortly before and during the time of New Testament events and thus provide important background to the New Testament.
Paperback: 174 pages (8-1/2"x11"). $10.99. Order from the publisher via their Web site Lulu Publishing. Also available from online bookstores like Amazon.
Hardback: 174 pages (8-1/2"x11"). $17.25. Order from the publisher via their Web site Lulu Publishing.
PDF (Acrobat Reader) eBook: 311 pages (6"x9"). $3.25. Order and download from the publisher via their Web site Lulu Publishing.
ePUB (for iPad, Nook, etc.) eBook: $3.25. Order and download from the publisher via their Web site Lulu Publishing.
Kindle Reading Device eBook: $2.99. Order and download from Amazon.
Download the free PDF Reader (Acrobat Reader®)
Purchase the Kindle Wireless Reading Device
Note: The paperback and hardback versions of the ALT are in double columns. But it is not possible to reproduce that format here.
The Analytical-Literal Translation of the Holy Bible (ALT) is translated by Gary F. Zeolla (www.Zeolla.org). The ALT consists of seven volumes. They are.
Volume I – The Torah (Genesis to Deuteronomy)
Volume II – The Historical Books (Joshua to Esther)
Volume III – The Poetic Books (Job to Song of Solomon)
Volume IV – The Prophetic Books (Isaiah to Malachi)
Volume V – The Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical Books
Volume VI – The New Testament
Volume VII – The Apostolic Fathers
Volumes I to IV contain the Old Testament (OT). All 39 of these books are considered canonical by Jews and all Christian groups. The word “canon” means list of authoritative books, so canonical books are those which are included in this list. They are believed to be inspired by God and reliable for basing doctrine and practice upon. As such, all 39 of these OT books are a trustworthy guide to correct faith and practice and to spiritual enrichment.
Volume V is the Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical (A/D) Books. These are the “extra” books found in the OTs of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles as compared to Jewish Bibles and the OTs of Protestant Bibles. There is much debate over if these books are canonical or not. They were all written in the period between the end of the OT and the beginning of the New Testament (NT). They are thus included in the ALT as, inspired or not, they are worth reading and provide background to the NT.
Volume VI contains the NT. All 27 of these books are considered canonical by all Christian groups. They are thus the bedrock on which Christian doctrine and practice are built upon and provide much spiritual benefit.
This Volume VII of the ALT contains the Apostolic Fathers (APF). These are the writings of Church leaders of the late first to mid-second centuries, most of whom were direct disciples of the apostles. Some of these books were seriously considered for inclusion in the canon of the NT. These are marked with an asterisk on the Table of Contents. They were ultimately rejected for the canon, but all of these APF books were popular in the early centuries of the Church. They give insight into the mindset of the early Church shortly after the apostles and provide background to the NT. As such, they are very much worth reading.The Greek Septuagint (LXX) is a third century B.C. Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. The name and abbreviation come from the tradition that 70 (or 72) Jewish scholars worked on its translation, six from each of the 12 tribes of Israel. The LXX contains the books found in modern Jewish Bibles and in the Old Testaments of all major Christian groups (Protestant, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and other groups that identify themselves as Christian). These books which are included in the Bibles of all of these groups are included in Volumes I-IV of this ALT: OT. They are called the "protocanonical" (first canon) books, meaning they are considered to be inspired by God and a part of the “canon” (list of authoritative books) of Scripture. They are thus considered trustworthy to develop doctrine, ethics, and spiritual practices from.
However, also contained in the LXX are several additional books about which there is much disagreement about whether they are inspired by God or not. These books were mostly likely written between about 200 B.C. and 50 A.D. Some of these books were originally written in Hebrew, but most were written in Greek. But even for the ones originally written in Hebrew, only the Greek translations as found in the LXX are extant. None of these books are included in the Bibles of Jews, Protestants, and some other groups. They are thus called “apocryphal” (a word that originally meant “hidden” but now means “extra-canonical”), meaning they are not considered to be inspired by God and thus are outside of the canon of Scripture.But many of these books are included in Roman Catholic Bibles and are called "deuterocanonical" (second canon) meaning they are considered inspired by God and thus part of the canon of Scripture. Most of the rest are also considered deuterocanonical and are included in Eastern Orthodox Bibles. The Table of Contents indicates which books are considered deuterocanonical by which group. Both the terms “Apocryphal” and “Deuterocanonical” are included in the title of this volume so as to avoid this debate. For simplicity sake, in this volume, “Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical” will be abbreviated as “A/D” and “protocanonical” will be shortened to just “proto.”
Fueling this debate are several issues. Some are of a historical nature concerning when and how the books were accepted or rejected as being canonical by different groups. These complicated historical issues are outside of the scope of this volume and are difficult for the average person to make a decision on yourself. However, there are a couple of issues the reader can make your own decision on by just reading these books yourself. The first issue is the spiritual quality of these books. There are readers who will find these books to be spiritually uplifting and who consider them important as they provide insight into Jewish thought and history shortly before or during the time of the New Testament (NT). But there are others who will focus on passages they consider to be doctrinally or ethically objectionable, contradictory, or simply weird.The second issue is the attitude of the NT towards these books. The A/D books were all written before any of the NT books and were thus part of the Jewish culture at the time of the NT. So they had some kind of influence on NT characters and writers. There are many verses in the NT that are possible allusions to passages in the A/D books. These possible allusions are indicated in this volume by giving the NT reference within brackets after the passage. Some believe these are true allusion and thus show the NT writers considered the A/D books to be authoritative. But others do not consider them to be true allusions or that simple allusions do not prove a belief in canonicity.
Moreover, these others will point out that there are no direct quotations from any of the A/D books in the NT and that none of the claimed allusions are prefaced by “It has been written …” or some similar phrase that indicates the speakers or writers believed they were referring to an authoritative source. Contrast this with the NT’s attitude towards the proto OT books. There are hundreds of obvious allusions and direct quotations from them, with many prefaced by a phrase like, “It has been written ….” But others will point out that there are only such references to 29 of the 39 proto OT books. So this lack does not speak against the canonicity of the A/D books.To decide on these issues, the reader needs a truly literal and readable translation of the A/D books. But there are only a few English translations of these books available, and most of these are paraphrases and thus not true translations. And the couple of versions that are mostly literal are rather older using hard to understand archaic English. So this Volume Five of the ALT is the first strictly literal English translation of these books using modern-day English.
Table of Contents
Comments of the Table of Contents
Translator’s Opinion on the A/D Books
Abbreviations and Notations
Roman Catholic Deuterocanonical Books
Wisdom of Solomon
Wisdom of Sirach
Baruch (Chapter 6 = Epistle of Jeremiah)
Additions to Daniel:
Susanna (Prologue to Daniel)
Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children (Daniel 3:24-90)
Bel and the Dragon (Epilogue to Daniel)
(Also, Additions to Esther. These were included within the Book of Esther in Volume II of this ALT: OT, after Esther 1:1; 3:13; 4:17; 5:1; 8:12; 10:3.)
Eastern Orthodox Deuterocanonical Books
The above books, plus:
Prayer of Manasseh
Odes of the Bible
(Also, Psalm 151. It was included at the end of the Book of Psalms in Volume III of this ALT: OT.)
Septuagint Apocryphal Book
Psalms of Solomon
One – Additions to 1Kings
Two – Books and eBooks by Translator
Three – Translator’s Web Sites, Newsletters, and Social Sites/ Contacting the Translator
Sample Passages from the ALT OT: Volume V: The A/D Books
Abbreviations and Notations
Following are the meanings of abbreviations and notations seen in the ALT text.
Abbreviations and Notations in Brackets
[the] – Words added for clarity are bracketed (e.g., Tobit 1:1).
[Amos 8:10] – Reference for when a proto OT book is quoted in an A/D book (e.g., Tobit 2:6).
“The LORD is good” – Meaning of a proper name, placed in quotation marks. Sometimes, the Greek name is transliterated from a Hebrew name (i.e., the Hebrew letters are changed into Greek letters), with the Hebrew being the source of the meaning. In such cases, “LORD” is a translation of Yahweh, the Hebrew proper name for God (e.g., Tobit 1:1).
about – Modern-day equivalent for measurements and monetary units (e.g., Tobit 1:14).
a.k.a – also know as.
and elsewhere in – The bracketed information applies to other occurrences of the preceding word or phrase in the given range, but not necessarily to all occurrences (e.g., Tobit 2:4).
and throughout/ and in – The bracketed information applies to all occurrences of the preceding word or phrase throughout the given range (e.g., e.g., Tobit 2:10).
c. circa. About. Used with approximate dates (e.g. Tobit 1:1).
cp. – Compare. A cross reference (e.g., Tobit 1:3), including a possible allusion in a NT book to the A/D passage (e.g., Tobit 3:8).
fig. – Figurative. Possible figurative meaning or paraphrase of preceding literal translation (e.g., Tobit 1:4).
Gr. – Greek. The Greek word previously translated, with the Greek letters transliterated into English letters (e.g., Tobit 3:11).
Heb. – Hebrew. Indicates a Greek word that is transliterated from a Hebrew word (e.g., Tobit 1:1).
i.e. – Explanatory note (“that is” or “in explanation”) (e.g., Tobit 1:10). Also “Note” for longer notes.
KJVU – King James Version Update. The KJV translation of a verse, with the archaic language and the capitalization and punctuation updated (see “omits”).
lit. – Literal. Indicates the literal rendering when the text uses a less than literal rendering (e.g., Tobit 2:10).
LXX – Septuagint. The spelling of proper names in the LXX often differs from the common spelling. For notable names, the common spelling is used in the text, but the first time it appears in a book, the LXX spelling is also given (e.g., Tobit 1:1). But note, no attempt is made to give the common spelling for all names.
omits – When the edition of the LXX this volume is based on (Codex Vaticanus) omits the verse, the KJVU rendering of a different edition of the LXX which includes the verse is generally given (e.g., Sirach 1:5).
or – Alternative, traditional, or slightly less literal translation (e.g., Tobit 1:13).
see – A cross reference (e.g., Tobit 14:4).
Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Notations
A/D – Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical. The two terms used to refer to the books in this volume. Their meanings are explained in the “Preface.”
ALT – Analytical-Literal Translation.
but – Indicates the use of the Greek strong adversative (alla – e.g., Tobit 4:14) instead of the weak adversatives (kai or de, translated as “but” when used in an adversative sense – e.g., Tobit 1:5; 12:7, respectively).
NT – New Testament.
OT – Old Testament.
proto – protocanonical. This term is defined in the Preface.
you – Indicates the pronoun is emphasized in the Greek text (also, he, she, etc. – e.g., Tobit 3:14).
you* – Indicates the original is plural (also, your* – e.g., Tobit 6:18). With no asterisk the second person pronoun is singular (e.g., Tobit 5:16).
[Note: The setting of this book is in the late eighth century B.C. It was probably written c. 200 B.C.]
[The] scroll of the words of Tobit [Heb., Tobhiyah, “The LORD is good”], the [son] of Tobiel, the [son] of Ananiel, the [son] of Aduel, the [son] of Gabael, from the seed [fig., descendants, and throughout book] of Asiel, from the tribe of Naphtali [LXX, Nephthalim], 2who was led captive in [the] days of Shalmaneser [LXX, Enemessar] the king of [the] Assyrians out of Thisbe, which is at [the] right of Kadesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher [LXX, Aser].
3I, Tobit, was walking in [the] ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I gave many alms [or, did many acts of charity] to my brothers [and sisters] and to [my] nation, having come along with me into [the] country of [the] Assyrians, into Nineveh [LXX, Nineve]. 4And when I was in my [own] country, in the land of Israel, my being [fig., when I was] young, all [the] tribe of Naphtali my father [fig., ancestor, and elsewhere in book] departed from the house of Jerusalem, having been chosen from all of the tribes of Israel, for all the tribes to be sacrificing [there], and [where] the temple of the habitation of the Most High was consecrated and was built into all the generations of the age [fig., for all generations to come].
5But all the tribes having revolted together, and the house of my father Naphtali, were sacrificing to the heifer Baal. 6But I alone was going frequently to Jerusalem in the feasts, just as it had been written to all Israel by an everlasting decree, having the first fruits and the tenths of the harvests and the first shearings [of the sheep]. 7And I was giving them to the priests, to the sons of Aaron at the altar. I was giving the tenth of all the harvests to the sons of Levi, ministering in Jerusalem. And the second tenth I was selling, and I was going and was spending them in Jerusalem according to each year [fig., every year]. 8And the third I was giving to who is suitable [fig., needed it], just as Deborah the mother of my father commanded, because I was left an orphan by my father.
9And when I become a man, I took Anna [as] a wife, from the seed of our father, and by her I fathered Tobias. 10And when we were led captive into Nineveh, all my brothers [and sisters] and the [ones] from my race were eating from the bread of the Gentiles [i.e., non-Jews]. 11But I preserved my soul not to eat [fig., kept myself from eating], 12because I had remembered God with my whole soul. 13And the Most High gave [me] favor and [good] appearance before Shalmaneser [LXX, Enemessaros], and I was his purveyor [or, buyer of provisions].
14And I was going into Media and entrusted to Gabael, the brother of Gabrias, at Rages [a city] of Media, ten talents [about 950 pounds or 420 kilograms] of silver. 15And when Shalmaneser died, Sennacherib his son reigned in his place. And his roads were unsettled, so no longer was I enabled to go into Media.
16And in the days of Shalmaneser I was giving many alms to [or, performing many acts of charity for] my brothers [and sisters]. 17And I was giving my bread to ones hungering and my clothes to the naked [people]. And if I was observing any from my race having died and having been cast out behind the walls of Nineveh, I was burying him. 18And if Sennacherib the king killed any, when he came, fleeing from Judea, I buried them stealing [fig., in secret], for he killed many in his wrath; and the bodies were sought for by the king, but were not found.
19But one of the [people] in Nineveh having gone, made known to the king concerning me, that I am burying them, so I hid myself. But having known that I was sought to be put to death, having feared, I withdrew. 20Then all the [things] existing of me [fig., all of my possessions] were plundered, so there was not anything left to me, except Anna my wife and Tobias my son.
21But fifty days did not pass until which [time] two of his [i.e., Shalmaneser’s] sons killed him, and they fled into the mountains of Ararat, and Esarhaddon [LXX, Sacherdonus] his son reigned in his place. And he appointed Ahikar [LXX, Achiacharus] the son of my brother Anael over all the accounts of his kingdom and over all the administration. 22And Ahikar entreated concerning me, so I came to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was the cupbearer and over the signet-ring and administrator and accountant, and Esarhaddon set him in charge from second [fig., next to him]. And he was my nephew.
And when I went down into my home, and Anna my wife was given back to me, and Tobias my son, at the Pentecost feast, which is [the] holy seven of sevens [fig., weeks], there was a good dinner to [fig., prepared for] me, and I reclined to eat. 2And I observed many cooked meats, and I said to my son, “Go, and bring whatever poor [people] you shall find of our brothers [and sisters], who has remembered the Lord; and behold, I will wait for you.” [cp. Luke 14:12-14,21]
3But having come, he said, “Father, one from our race, having been strangled, has been cast out in the marketplace!” 4Then I, before to taste me [fig., I tasted, and similarly elsewhere in book] anything, having jumped up, took him [i.e., the dead body] up into a room until which [time] the sun set. 5Then having returned, I washed myself and was eating my bread with grief. 6And I was reminded of the prophecy of Amos, just as he said, “Your* feasts will be turned into mourning and all your* gladness into a dirge [or, lamentation].” [Amos 8:10] And I wept. 7And when the sun set, I was going; and having dug [a grave], I buried him. 8And the neighbors were laughing approvingly, saying, “He is no longer afraid to be put to death concerning this matter, and he fled away; and behold, he again buries the dead!”
9Now in the same night, I returned, having buried [fig., having completed the burial], and I slept, having been defiled, by the wall of the courtyard, and my face was uncovered. 10And I did not know that there are sparrows on the wall, and my eyes having opened, the sparrows discharged warm excrement into my eyes, and white spots [lit., whitenesses, and throughout book] became in my eyes. So I was walked to [the] physicians, but they did not help me. But Ahikar was nourishing [fig., taking care of] me, until which [time] I was walked into Elymais.
11So my wife Anna began working in the female [works] [i.e., such as spinning wool or weaving cloth]. 12And she was sending to the lords, and they paid to her, and they having given over the wage and a young goat. 13Now when it came to me, it began to be bleating, and I said to her, “From where [is] the young goat? It is not stolen, is it? Give it back to the lords, for it is not lawful to eat a stolen [animal]!”
14But she said, “A gift has been given to me in addition to the wage.” But I was not believing her, but was saying to be giving it back to the lords; and I was flushing [with anger] towards her. But having answered, she said to me, “Where are your alms [or, acts of charity] and your righteous deeds? Behold, all [thing are] known against you!”
Then having been grieved, I wept, and I prayed with sorrow, saying, 2“You are righteous, O Lord, and all Your works and all Your ways [are] alms [or, acts of charity] and truth, and You judge a true and just judgment into the age [fig., always judge truly and justly]. 3Be reminded of me and look with care upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my sins committed in ignorance and [the sins] of my fathers, which [things] they sinned before You. 4For they refused to listen to Your commandments; You gave us for plunder and captivity and death and a parable [or, symbol] of reproach to all the nations among whom we have been scattered.
5“And now Your many judgments are true; from me to do [fig., deal with me] concerning my sins and the [sins] of my fathers; because we did not do Your commandments, for we were not walked [or, did not walk] in truth before You. 6So now do with me according to the pleasing [thing] before You; command to take up my spirit [or, breath], in order that I should be released and become earth; for it is better to me to die than to be living, because I heard false reproaches, and there is much grief in me. Command [for] me to be released of the distress now into the everlasting place. Do not turn Your face away from me.”
7It happened in the same day to the daughter of Raguel, to Sarah [LXX, Sara] in Ecbatane the [city] of Media, and this [woman] to be reproached by [the] female-servants [or, slaves, and throughout book] of her father. 8Because she was having been given [fig., married] to seven husbands, but Asmodeus the evil demon killed them, before to become them with her as with a wife [fig., before they had consummated the marriage with her]. And they said to her, “You were understanding, one choking your husbands [fig., You understand, you are the one choking your husbands], do you not? You already had seven, and you were not benefitted [by] one of them. [cp., Matt 22:23-28] 9Why do you beat [or, punish] us? If they died, be going with them. May we not see a son or a daughter of you into the age [fig., May we never see a son or a daughter of yours]!” 10These [things] having heard, she was exceedingly sorrowful so [as] to hang herself. But she said, “I am indeed [the] only [daughter] to my father; if I do this, it is a disgrace to him, and I will bring his old age with sorrow down into the realm of the dead [Gr., hades].”
11Then she prayed toward the window and said, “Blessed are You, O Lord my God, and Your holy and precious name [is] blessed into the age [fig., forever]! May all Your works bless You into the age [fig., forever]. 12And now, O Lord, I have given [fig., set] my eyes and my face to You. 13Say [fig., Command] to release me from the earth, for [lit., and, and elsewhere in book] me not to hear reproach any longer. 14You know, O Lord, that I am innocent from all [or, any] sin with a man. 15And I did not defile my name or the name of my father in the land of my captivity. I am [the] only begotten [daughter] to my father, and there does not exist to him a child who will inherit [from] him, neither a near brother [fig., relative], nor a son existing to him [i.e., to the relative], that I should preserve myself for him [for] a wife. Seven [husbands] already perished to me, that why to me to be living [fig., why should I be living]? But if it does not seem [good] to You to kill me, command [the female-servants] to look upon me with care and to pity me, so no longer [for] me to hear a reproach.”
16So the prayers of both were heard before the glory of the great Raphael [or, the great [God] of Raphael]. 17And he was sent to heal the two [eyes] of Tobit, to peel away the white spots, and to give Sarah the [daughter] of Raguel to Tobias the son of Tobit [for] a wife, and to bind Asmodeus the wicked demon, because she falls to Tobit to inherit her. At [the] same time, having returned, Tobit came into his house, and Sarah the [daughter] of Raguel came down from her upstairs room.
Wisdom of Solomon 1-2
[Note: This book was probably written in the second century B.C.]
Love righteousness, the ones judging the earth; think about the Lord in [or, with] goodness, and seek Him in sincerity of heart. 2For He is found by the ones not testing Him, and He appears to the ones not refusing to believe in Him. 3For perverse thoughts separate from God, and [His] power being tested reproves the foolish [people]. 4For wisdom will not enter into a malicious soul nor dwell in a body involved in sin. 5For a holy spirit of discipline [fig., a holy and disciplined spirit] will flee deceit and will rise and will depart from senseless thoughts and will reprove having come unrighteousness [or, rebuke when injustice occurs].
6For wisdom [is] a humane spirit and will not let go unpunished a blasphemous [person] from [the guilt of] his lips, for God [is] witness of his kidneys [fig., thoughts] and a true overseer [or, observer] of his heart and a hearer of [his] tongue. 7For [the] Spirit of the Lord has filled the inhabited earth, and the [One] keeping all [things] together [or, from dispersing] has knowledge of [every] voice.
8Because of this, one speaking unrighteous [things] shall by no means escape notice, and by no means shall the convicting justice pass by him. 9For a close examination with deliberations will be [made] of an ungodly [person], and a report of his words will come to the Lord for verification of his lawless actions. 10For an ear of jealousy hears all [things], and a noise of complaints is not hid. 11Therefore guard against useless complaining, and refrain [your] tongue from slander, for [the] secret sound of the voice will not go without results, and a mouth telling lies kills a soul.
12Stop being zealous [for] death by [the] error of your* life, and stop drawing yourselves [to] ruin by the works of your* hands. 13For God did not make death, nor does He delight upon [the] destruction of living ones. 14For He created all [things] to be existing and the saving origins [or, generations] of the world, and there is no poison of destruction in them, nor [is the] palace of the realm of the dead [Gr., hades] upon [the] earth, 15for righteousness is immortal. 16But ungodly [people] by [their] hands and words summoned it [i.e., death] to themselves, having regarded [it as] a friend; they were dissolved and made an agreement with it, for they are worthy [fig., they deserve] to be part of that.
For they said within themselves, having reasoned not rightly, “Our life is short and painful, and there is no remedy at [the] end [of the life] of a person, and we do not know the one having returned from the realm of the dead [Gr., hades]. 2For we became [or, were born] by chance, and after this we will be as not having existed, for the breath in our nostrils [is] smoke, and the word [or, reason] [is] a spark [kindled] by [the] moving [or., beating] of our heart; 3which having been extinguished, the body will end by being ash, and the spirit will be dissolved as empty air. 4And our name will be forgotten in time, and no one will remember our works, and our life will pass away as a traces of a cloud and will be dispersed as a mist, having been driven away by [the] rays of [the] sun and having been weighed down [fig., overcome] by its heat. 5For our appointed time [is] a passage of a shadow, and there is no return from our end [or, the end of our [life]], for it was sealed, so no one returns.
6“Come then, and let us enjoy the existing good [things], and let us earnestly make use of the creation as in [our] youth. 7Let us be filled [or, fill ourselves] with costly wine and ointments, and let no flower of spring pass us by. 8Let us crown ourselves with roses in buds [or, rosebuds], before [they] be withered away. 9Let none of us be without share of our bragging; everywhere let us leave signs of [our] gladness, for this [is] our portion, and this [is our] lot.
10“Let us oppress a poor righteous [person]; let us not spare a widow nor respect an elderly man [with] long-existing gray hairs. 11Let our strength be a law of justice, for the weak [person] is proved worthless.
12“Let us lie in wait for the righteous [person], because he is useless to us and is opposed to our works. [cp. Isa 3:10] And he denounces sins of [or, against] [the] Law by us and accuses sins of [or, against] our education by us. 13He professes to be having knowledge of God, and he calls himself a child of the Lord. [cp. 1John 3:1,2] 14He became to us for a disproof of our thoughts. Even [fig., Merely] seeing [him] is burdensome to us, 15for his manner of life [is] unlike others and his paths having been completely changed. 16We were accounted by him for adulterated [or, as fraudulent], and he abstains from our ways as from impurities; he considers [the] end of just [people] blessed [or, fortunate], and he makes false pretenses [that] God [is his] father.
17“Let us see if his words [are] true, and let us test the [things] at [the] outcome of him [fig., what will happen at the end of his life]; 18for if the righteous [person] is a son of God, He will help him and will deliver him from [the] hand of ones having resisted [fig., his enemies]. 19Let us examine him with insult and torture, that we shall know his gentleness and prove his patient endurance. 20Let us condemn him to an unseemly death, for a visitation [of God] will be his, by his [own] words.”
21They considered these [things] and were deceived, for their wickedness blinded them. 22And they did not know [the] secrets [or, mysteries] of God, nor hoped for [or, confidently expected] [the] wages of devoutness [or, piety], nor discerned [the] honor of blameless souls. 23For God created humanity [or, man] with immortality and made him an image of His own eternity. 24But by [the] envy of [the] Devil death entered into the world, and the ones being a part of that [one] test [fig., experience] it.
[Note: The time-period covered by this book is 175-134 B.C. It was probably written shortly after that time.]
And it happened, after to strike Alexander, the [son] of Philip, an Macedonian, who came out from [the] land of Kittim [LXX, Chettiim], and he struck Darius king of [the] Persians and of [the] Medes, and he reigned in his place, [the] first [ruler] over Greece. 2And he waged many battles and seized fortresses and slaughtered [the] kings of the earth. 3And he went through as far as [the] ends of the earth and took spoils of many nations, and the earth was silent before him; and he was exalted, and his heart was lifted up. 4And he gathered an exceedingly strong army [lit., power, and elsewhere in book] and ruled over countries, nations, and monarchs [Gr., tyrannon], and they became to him for tribute [or, taxation].
5And after these [things] he fell down [sick] upon his bed, and he knew that he [would] die. 6So he summoned his servants, the honorable [men], the [men] reared with him from youth, and he divided his kingdom to them, yet him living [fig., while he was yet alive]. 7So Alexander reigned twelve years, and he died [i.e., 336-323 B.C.]. 8And his servants ruled, each in his [own] place. 9And after to die him [fig., he died], they all put diadems [or, crowns] upon themselves, and their sons after them [for] many years. And evil [deeds] were multiplied in the earth.
10And there came out from them a sinful root, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of King Antiochus, who [once] was a hostage in Rome, and he reigned in the hundredth and thirtieth and seventh [i.e., 137th] year of [the] kingdom of [the] Greeks [i.e., 175 B.C.].
11In those days, lawless sons [fig., men] went out from Israel, and they persuaded many, saying, “Let us go and make a covenant with the Gentiles [or, nations, and throughout book] around us, for from which [time] we were separated [or, we departed] from them we found many evils [or, many troubles found us].” 12And the word found favor in their eyes.
13Then some from the people were eager, and they went to the king. And he gave to them authority to do [or, observe] the ordinances of the Gentiles: 14So they built a place for training athletes [Gr., gymnasion] in Jerusalem according to the customs of the Gentiles. 15And they made themselves uncircumcised [fig., disguised their circumcision], and they departed from the holy covenant and were joined to the Gentiles and were sold to do the wicked [thing].
16Now the kingdom was prepared [or, established] before Antiochus, and he imagined [or, determined] to reign [over the] land of Egypt, in order that he shall reign over the two kingdoms. 17So he entered into Egypt with a well-armed army [lit., heavy crowd, and throughout book], with chariots and elephants [Gr., elephansin] and with horsemen and with a large fleet [of ships]. 18And he waged war against Ptolemy [LXX, Ptolemaios] king of Egypt, and Ptolemy was turned about from his face and fled, and many wounded men fell. 19So they overtook the strong cities in [the] land to Egypt, and he took the spoils of [the] land of Egypt.
20And after to strike [or, he struck] Egypt, Antiochus returned in the hundredth and fortieth and third [i.e., 143rd] year [i.e., 169 B.C.], and he went up against Israel and went up into Jerusalem with a well-armed army. 21And he entered into the sanctuary with arrogance and took the golden altar and the lampstand of light, and all the vessels of it, 22and the table of the [bread] of the presentation [fig., the consecrated bread] and the cups and the bowls and the golden censers and the veil and the crowns and the golden ornaments opposite [the] face of the temple. And he peeled off all [or, stripped it all off]. 23And he took the silver and the gold and the precious vessels, and he took the hidden treasures which he found.
24And having taken all, he departed into his [own] land, and he made a massacre and spoke [with] great arrogance. 25So there became a great mourning upon Israel in their every place. 26And [the] rulers and elders groaned; [the] virgins and young men were sick, and the beauty of the women was changed [fig., disfigured]. 27Every bridegroom took up a dirge, and [every woman] sitting in the bridal chamber was mourning. 28Even the land trembled for the ones inhabiting it, and all the house of Jacob put on shame.
29After two years of days [fig., two full years], the king sent [his] ruler of tribute [fig., chief tax-collector] into the cities of Judah [LXX, Juda], and he came into Jerusalem with a well-armed army. 30And he spoke peaceable words to them with deceit, but they trusted in him, and he fell suddenly upon the city and struck it [with] a great blow and destroyed many people from Israel. 31And he took the spoils of the city and burned it with fire, and he pulled down the houses of it and the walls round about. 32But they took the women and the children captive and gained possession of the beasts of burden.
33Then they built the City of David with a great and strong wall, with strong towers, and it became to them for a citadel. 34And they put there a sinful nation, unlawful men, and strengthened [themselves] in it. 35And they put weapons and food; and having gathered together the spoils of Jerusalem, they stored [them] there, and they became into a great snare [fig., threat]. 36And it became into an ambush against the sanctuary and a wicked slanderer [fig., adversary; Gr., diabolos] to Israel through all [fig., continually].
37And they shed innocent blood around the sanctuary and defiled the sanctuary: 38And the settlers of Jerusalem fled on account of them, and she [i.e., Jerusalem, a feminine noun] became a dwelling-place of strangers [or, foreigners] and became strange [or, a foreigner] to her offspring [fig., native dwellers], and her children left her. 39Her sanctuary was laid waste like a wilderness; her feasts were turned into mourning; her Sabbaths into a reproach; her honor into contempt. 40According to her glory, her dishonor was increased, and her height was turned into mourning.
41Then the king wrote to all his [or, his entire] kingdom to be all into one people and each to forsake his laws [or, customs], and all the Gentiles received according to the word of the king. 43And many from Israel delighted in [or, consented to] his sacred service [or, religion] and sacrificed to the idols and profaned the Sabbath.
44And the king sent scrolls [fig., letters] by [the] hand of messengers into Jerusalem and the cities of Judah to go after [the] strange laws [or, customs] of the land, 45and to forbid whole-burnt offerings and a sacrifice and a drink offering from the sanctuary, and to profane [the] Sabbaths and feasts, 46and to defile [the] sanctuary and holy [men] [fig., priests], 47to build altars [of idols] and sacred precincts and idol temples, and to be sacrificing pigs and [other] unclean animals, 48and to be leaving their sons uncircumcised, to corrupt their souls with every[thing] unclean and a profanation, 49so as to forget the Law and to change all the ordinances; 50and whoever would not do according to the word of the king would die. 51According to all of these words he wrote to all his kingdom, and he made overseers over all the people and commanded to the cities of Judah to be sacrificing, according to city and city [fig., each city in turn].
52Then many from the people were gathered to them, every one forsaking the Law, and they did evil [things] in the land. 53And they placed [fig., drove] Israel into hiding-places, to every place of refuge of them.
54Now on the fifteenth day of [the month] of Chislev [LXX, Casleu], in the fifth and fortieth and hundredth [i.e., 145th] year [i.e., 167 B.C.], he erected [the] abomination of desolation upon the altar [of God] and built altars [of idols] in [the] cities of Judah round about. [see Daniel 9:27, 11:31; 12:11; Matt 24:15; Mark 13:14]; 55And they began burning incense at the doors of the houses and in the streets.
56And having torn apart the scrolls of the Law which they found, they burned [them] with fire. 57And where a scroll of the covenant was found with anyone, or if anyone consented to the Law, the decree of the king was to be putting him to death. 58They were doing by their strength to Israel in every month and month [fig., month after month] to the ones being found in the cities, 59and on the fifth and twentieth day of the month sacrificing upon the [idol] altar what was on the altar [of God].
60And the women having circumcised their children they put to death according to the ordinance. 61And they hanged the infants from their necks and their house[holds] and the ones having circumcised them. 62But many in Israel were strengthened and were fortified in themselves not to eat unclean [meats]. 63And they accepted to die, that they should not be defiled with foods and [that] they should not desecrate [the] holy covenant, so they died. 64And great wrath became exceedingly upon Israel.
Odes of the Bible 1
book consists of fifteen prayers and songs taken from various books of
except for the last Ode, which is a mostly original praise of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.]
[First Ode of Moses (Exodus 15:1–19)]
1[The] song of Moses in the Exodus. “Let us sing to the Lord, for He has been gloriously glorified [fig., very greatly glorified]! Horse and rider He threw into [the] sea. 2He became a Helper and a Protector to me for salvation. This [is] my God, and I will glorify Him; [the] God of my father, and I will exalt Him! 3The LORD [is] crushing wars [or, bringing wars to naught]. The LORD [is the] name to Him.
4“He cast [the] chariots of Pharaoh and his force [fig., army] into [the] sea; [the] chosen mounted captains sank in [the] Red Sea. 5He covered them with [the] open sea; they sank into [the] deep like a stone. 6Your right [hand], O LORD, has been glorified in strength; Your right hand, O LORD, broke [the] enemies in pieces. 7And in the abundance of Your glory You broke the adversaries in pieces. You sent Your anger, and it devoured them as stubble. 8And by [the] breath of Your wrath the water parted. The waters were put together like a wall; the waves were put together in the midst of the sea. 9The enemy said, ‘Having pursued, I will overtake. I will divide [the] spoils. I will satisfy my soul. I will kill with my sword. My hand will lord over [them].’ 10You sent out Your wind; [the] sea covered them; they sank like lead in [the] violent water.
11“Who [is] like to You among [the] gods, O LORD? Who [is] like to You, having been glorified in holy [things] [fig., holiness], marvelous in glories, doing wonders? 12You stretched out Your right [hand], and the earth swallowed them. 13You guided by Your righteousness this Your people whom You redeemed. By Your strength You urged [them] into Your holy lodging place.
14“[The] nations heard and were enraged; agonies seized [the] ones inhabiting Philistia. Then [the] leaders of Edom and [the] rulers of [the] Moabites hurried; trembling took hold of them; all the ones inhabiting Canaan were melted away. 16May fear and trembling fall upon them; by [the] greatness of Your arm, let them become as stone, until Your people pass over, O LORD, until this Your people pass over, whom You acquired. 17Having brought in, plant them in [the] mountain of Your inheritance, in Your prepared habitation, which You, O LORD, produced, [the] sanctuary, O LORD, which Your hands prepared. 18The LORD [is] reigning [to] the age and to age and yet [fig., forever and ever and ever]!”
19For [the] horse [fig., cavalry] of Pharaoh went in with [the] chariots and horsemen into [the] sea, and the LORD brought upon them the water of the sea, but the sons [and daughters] of Israel walked through dry [land] in the midst of the sea.
[Note: The events of this book probably occurred in the second century B.C. It was probably written in the first century B.C. to early first century A.D.]
For a certain Simon, at one time holding the high priesthood through [or, for] life, being a political opponent to Onias, a honorable and good man. After bringing charges [in] every way, he was not able to harm [Onias] on behalf of the nation, he was escaping [as] a fugitive [to] be betraying his fatherland.
2From where, having come to Apollonius, the governor of Syria and Phoenicia and Cilicia, he was saying, 3“Being well disposed to the affairs of the king, I am come, making known much private sums of money, myriads, to have been stored up in the treasuries in Jerusalem, not being shared with the sacred [places], but these to be belonging to King Seleucus.”
4Apollonius, having learned of each of these [things], on the one hand praised Simon for his concern for the king, on the other hand having gone up to Seleucus, he informed [him] of the storehouse of the sums of money. 5And having received authority about these [things], having come quickly into our fatherland with the accursed Simon and a heavy [fig., impressive] army, 6he was saying to be present with the commands of the king, in order that he might take the private sums of money of the treasury. 7And the nation, complaining bitterly at the word, speaking against, having supposed [it] to be outrageous if the ones having entrusted the deposits to the sacred treasury would be deprived [of them], they were trying to prevent [him], as such as it was [fig., as well as they could]. 8But Apollonius was going away with threats into the temple.
9And the priests, with women and children, having supplicated God in the temple to protect the sacred place being despised, 10and Apollonius approaching with his having been armed army to the seizure of the sums of money, angels on horseback from heaven appeared, flashing with their weapons and inciting both much fear and trembling in them. 11And Apollonius having fallen half dead upon the mingled tribes enclosure of the temple [fig., the part of the temple open to all nationalities], he extended his hands to heaven and began begging the Hebrews, with tears, in order that, having prayed concerning him, he should propitiate the heavenly army. 12For he was saying, having sinned, so as also to be worthy to die; and [if] having been saved, [he] would sing praises to the blessedness of the sacred place to all peoples.
13Onias the high priest, having been induced by these words, although otherwise having been cautious lest perhaps King Seleucus might suppose Apollonius to have been killed by a human plot and not by Divine Justice, he prayed concerning him. 14And on the one hand having unexpectedly been brought through safely, he departed to be declaring to the king the [things] having happened to him, 15on the other hand King Seleucus having died, his son Antiochus Epiphanes succeeds the rule, an arrogant and terrible man, 16who having dissolved Onias of the high priesthood, appointed his brother Jason high priest, 17having agreed, if the rule might be permitted to him, [he] would give according to year [fig., yearly] three thousand six hundred sixty talents [about 173 tons or 156 metric tons of gold or silver].
18So he permitted to him both to be continually high priest and to be leading the nation. 19And he changed the manner of living [of] the nation and changed their form of government toward every lawlessness [or, transgression of the Law], 20so as not only to build a place for training athletes [Gr., gymnasion] on the very citadel of our fatherland, but also to disband the care of the temple. 21At which [things] the Divine Justice having become indignant, instigated Antiochus himself against them. 22For when he was waging war against Ptolemy in Egypt, he heard that a report concerning him to have died having been spread, and how being within the Jerusalemites might especially rejoice, he quickly broke camp [fig., marched] against them. 23And when he plundered them, he established a decree in order that if any of them might appear living by the ancestral law they would [lit., might, and elsewhere in book] die.
24And when he was not being able by any manner to destroy by his decrees the good laws of the nation, but was seeing all his threats and punishments having been neglected, 25so that even women, because they circumcised their children, to be thrown down from a cliff along with their babies, having seen [or, known] beforehand that they would suffer this. 26When therefore his decrees were being despised by the people, he tried compelling through tortures each one of the nation, [by] tasting defiled foods, to be denying Judaism.
Indeed, the tyrant Antiochus, sitting in public state with his advisors on a certain high place and with the soldiers to him having stood by armed in a circle around [him], 2was ordering to the spear-bearers to seize each one of [the] Hebrews and to be compelling [them] to be tasting meats of pigs and [foods] offered to idols. 3And if any would not be willing to eat unclean food, these having tortured on the wheel, to be killed.
4And many having been seized, one prominent [man] from the herd [or, assembly], by name Eleazar, a priest by family, knowledgeable pertaining to the Law and advancing in age, and because of his age, well-known to many of the [ones] about the tyrant, was brought near to him.
5And Antiochus seeing him, said, 6“Before I begin the tortures against you, Oh old man, might I advise to you these [things], in order that having tasted of the pig [meats], you might save yourself? 7For I feel ashamed of your age and gray hair, which having with so great a time, you do not appear to me to be philosophizing, making use of [the] religion of the Jews. 8For because of what [or, why], the good eating flesh of this living creatures being bestowed by nature, should you abhor [it]? 9For even this [is] foolish and unjust, to not be having benefit of pleasant [things] without disgrace, to turn away from the graces [or, gifts] of nature.
10“And it seems to me, you also would do a foolish [thing], if holding a false opinion about the truth, you would yet even despise [me] to your own punishment. 11Will you not awake from your* nonsense philosophy and dispel the gibberish of your reasoning? And having taken up a mind worthy of your age, you will philosophize the truth of the being beneficial [course]. 12And having prostrated in reverenced [to] my humane encouragement, you will have compassion upon your old age. 13For consider also how, if there is any overseer power of this religion of yours*, it would make allowance to you over every lawlessness [or, transgression of the Law] having become through compulsion.”
14[In] this manner being urged to the horrible eating of [pig] flesh by the tyrant, Eleazar asked [to speak] a word. 15And having received authority to be speaking, he began thus to be publically speaking: 16“We, O Antiochus, having been persuaded to be conducting our lives by Divine Law, consider no compulsion to be [as] forcible [as] our ready obedience to the Law. 17Therefore indeed we consider [it] not worthy to be acting contrary to the Law [in] any manner. 18And yet if (as you suppose) our Law is not by divine truth, but otherwise we are considering it to be divine, not even thus is it being permitted to us to invalidate against honor with godliness. 19Therefore you shall not consider [it] to be a small sin if we would eat unclean food. 20For to be acting contrary to the Law over small and great [matters] is of equal value [or, seriousness], 21for through either the Law is likewise treated disdainfully.
22“But you mock our philosophy, as though living not with prudence in it. 23Yet it thoroughly teaches us self-control, so as to be restraining all of the pleasures and desires; and it trains [us in] manliness, so as to be willingly enduring every toil [or, suffering]. 24And it teaches [us] justice, so as to be acting impartially through all of our customs; and it thoroughly teaches godliness, so as to be magnificently reverencing the only One being God. 25Therefore we do not eat unclean food, for believing the Law to have been established by God, we know that the Creator of the world ordaining the Law sympathizes with us according to [our] nature. 26On the one hand the [things] being appropriate to our souls [or, lives], He permitted to be eating; on the other hand the [things] opposing, He forbid to be eating the flesh.
27“But [it is] tyrannical not only to be forcing us to be breaking the Law, but also to be eating, in order that you shall ridicule this eating of unclean food, with hatred of us. 28But you will not laugh this laughter against me, 29nor will I neglect the sacred oaths of my forefathers to keep the Law. 30Not even if you would gouge out my eyes and dissolve my entrails. 31I am not so old and unmanly, so as not to be always young [in] the reasoning for the sake of godliness.
32“Be preparing these torture wheels and be fanning the excessive fire! 33I will not thus have compassion on my old age, so as to dismiss on my account the ancestral Law. 34I will not be false [to] you, O instructor, O Law, nor will I forsake you, O beloved self-control! 35Nor will I put you to shame, O philosopher reason; nor will I utterly deny you, O honored priesthood and knowledge of [the] legislation. 36Nor will you defile my worthy of respect mouth of old age, nor my maturity of a lawful life.
37“The fathers will receive me pure, not having feared your compulsion as far as death! 38For on the one hand you will tyrannize ungodly [people]; on the other hand you will not be master over my reasonings on behalf of godliness, neither by word nor through deeds.”
Psalms of Solomon 2
[Note: These Psalms were probably written between 64-46 B.C.]
A Psalm by Solomon concerning Jerusalem.
When the sinful [person] was behaving arrogantly, he broke down [the] strong walls with a battering ram, and You did not prevent [it]. 2Foreign Gentiles went up to Your altar. They were trampling [it] with their sandals in arrogance. 3Because the sons [and daughters] of Jerusalem defiled the holy [places] of the Lord, they were profaning the gifts of [or, offerings for] God with lawless deeds. 4Because of these [things], He said, “Remove them far away from Me! I am not pleased with them.”
5The beauty of its glory was disdained before God. It was treated with disrespect as far as into [the] end [fig., totally treated with disrespect]. 6The sons and the daughters [are] in a wicked captivity; their neck [is] in a seal, in a well-known [place] among the Gentiles. 7According to their sins He did to them, for He abandoned them to [the] hands of the ones prevailing. 8For He turned away His face from their mercy, young and old and their children, to once [or, once again], for they committed wicked [acts] to once [or, once again] to not be listening [or, by not listening]. 9And heaven was weighed down, and the earth detested them, for every person did not do [or, no person did] on it as many [things] as they did. 10And the earth will recognize [that] all Your judgments [are] righteous, O God [lit., the God, and throughout book].
11The sons [and daughters] of Jerusalem stood for a mockery because of prostitutes in her [i.e., Jerusalem, which is a feminine noun, hence the feminine pronouns throughout book]. Everyone passing by was entering opposite the sun. 12They were mocking their lawless deeds, just as they used to be doing to them. Opposite the sun, they were publically disgracing their wrongdoing. 13And [the] daughters of Jerusalem [were] profane according to Your judgments, because they made themselves defiled with a disorder of [or, improper] [sexual] intercourse.
14I suffer [in] my belly and my bowels over these [things]. 15I will declare You righteous, O God, in uprightness of heart, for in Your judgments [is] Your righteousness, O God. 16For You gave back to the sinful [people] according to their deeds and according to their exceedingly wicked sins. 17You revealed their sins so that Your judgment shall be evident. You wiped out the memory of them from the earth.
18God [is] a righteous judge, and He will not marvel [at] a face [fig., be prejudice]. 19For Gentiles insulted Jerusalem with trampling. Her beauty was pulled down from [the] throne of glory. 20She wrapped sackcloth around herself instead of clothing of beauty, a rope around her head instead of a wreath [or, crown]. 21She took off [the] turban of glory which God put around her. Her beauty was thrown to the earth in dishonor.
22And I saw and implored the face of the Lord and said, “Let it be sufficient, O Lord, to be weighing down Your hand upon Jerusalem by a brining in [or, an invasion] of Gentiles! 23For they mocked and did not spare [her] in anger and wrath with malice, and they will be finished, if not [fig., unless] You, O Lord, give rebuke to them in Your anger. 24For they did not act with zeal, but in lust of soul, to pour out their anger against us in plunder. 25Do not delay, O God, to give back to them on [their] heads to declare the arrogance with dishonor of the dragon.”
26And I did not wait long until God showed to me his insolence having been pierced on the mountains of Egypt, having been set at naught beyond [the] lesser [thing] on earth and sea. 27His body being carried different ways on [the] waves in much ignominy, and there was not the one burying [it], for He disdained him with disgrace. 28He did not consider that he is a man, and he did not consider the [thing] afterwards. 29He said, “I will be lord of land and of sea.” And he did not recognize that God [is] great, mighty in His great strength.
30He [is] King over the heavens and judging kings and rulers, 31the One raising me up to glory, but putting arrogant [people] to sleep for destruction of age [fig., eternal destruction] in dishonor, because they did not know [or, acknowledge] Him. 32And now, nobles of the earth, see the judgment of the Lord, that [He is] a great and righteous King, judging the [thing] under heaven.
33Be praising God, the ones fearing [or, reverencing, and throughout book] the Lord with understanding, for the mercy of the Lord [is] upon the ones fearing Him, with judgment, 34to distinguish in the midst of [or, between] a righteous [person] and a sinful [person], to repay to sinful [people] forever [lit., into the age, and throughout book] according to their works, 35and to have mercy on a righteous [person], [protecting him] from [the] humiliation of a sinful [person], and to repay to a sinful [person] for what he did to a righteous [person]. 36For the Lord [is] good to the ones calling upon Him with patient endurance to do to His devout [or, pious, and throughout book] [ones] according to His mercy, to have stood continually [lit., through all, and throughout book] before Him in strength. 37Blessed [or, Praised, and throughout book] [be] the Lord forever before His servants [or, slaves, and throughout book].
Scripture taken from the Analytical-Literal Translation of the Old Testament: Volume V: The Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical Books. Copyright © 2014 by Gary F. Zeolla (www.Zeolla.org).
Additional Books and eBooks by the Director
Subject Index Alphabetical List of Pages
to Light Home Page