Biblical and Constitutional Politics


Abbreviations Used on this Website

By Gary F. Zeolla


This webpage lists the abbreviations used on this website and in this writer’s Analytical Literal Translation (ALT).


General Abbreviations on this Website


AG – Attorney General

AOC – Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (a NYC US House Representative)

BCP – Biblical and Constitutional Politics (this website)

DHS – Department of Homeland Security

DNC – Democratic National Committee/ Convention

DOJ – Department of Justice

FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation

FBN – Fox Business Network

FISA – Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

FLOTUS – First Lady of the United States

FNC – Fox News Channel

GOP – Grand Old Party (another name for the Republican Party)

HJC – House Judiciary Committee

ISIS – Islamic State in Iraq and Syria

MAGA – Make America Great Again

MSM – Mainstream Media (outlets like CNN, MSNBC, NYT, WaPo)

NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement (old trade deal)

NYC – New York City

NYT – New York Times

POTUS – President of the United States

RNC – Republican National Committee/ Convention

SCOTUS – Supreme Court of the United States

SJC – Senate Judiciary Committee

SOTU – State of the Union (Address)

USMCA – United States, Mexico, Canada Agreement (new trade deal)

WaPo – Washington Post

WSJ – Wall Street Journal


Bible Book Names



The Old Testament:

Gen – Genesis

Ex, Exod – Exodus

Lev – Leviticus

Num, Numb – Numbers

Dt, Deut – Deuteronomy

Josh – Joshua

Jud, Judg – Judges

Ruth – Ruth

1Sam – 1Samuel

2Sam – 2Samuel

1Ki – 1Kings

2Ki – 2Kings

1Chr, 1Chron – 1Chronicles

2Chr, 2Chron – 2Chronicles

Ez – Ezra

Neh – Nehemiah

Est – Esther

Job – Job

Ps – Psalms

Pr, Prov – Proverbs

Eccl – Ecclesiastes

Song – Song of Solomon

Isa – Isaiah

Jer – Jeremiah

Lam – Lamentations

Ez, Ezek – Ezekiel

Dan – Daniel

Hos – Hosea

Joel – Joel

Amos – Amos

Ob, Obad – Obadiah

Jon – Jonah

Mic – Micah

Nah – Nahum

Hab – Habakkuk

Zeph – Zephaniah

Hag – Haggai

Zech – Zechariah

Mal – Malachi


The New Testament:

Mt, Matt – Matthew

Mk – Mark

Lk – Luke

Jn – John

Ac – Acts

Rom – Romans

1Cor – 1Corinthians

2Cor – 2Corinthians

Gal – Galatians

Eph – Ephesians

Phil – Philippians

Col – Colossians

1Th, 1Thes – 1Thessalonians

2Th, 2Thes – 2Thessalonians

1Tim – 1Timothy

2Tim – 2Timothy

Tit – Titus

Phlm – Philemon

Heb – Hebrews

Jam – James

1Pet – 1Peter

2Pet – 2Peter

1Jn – 1John

2Jn – 2John

3Jn – 3John

Jd – Jude

Rev – Revelation


General Abbreviations in the ALT


a – Only the first half of the verse is being quoted or referred to (e.g., Exodus 15:25a, only the first half of verse 25 is quoted or referred to).

b – Only the second half of the verse is being quoted or referred to (e.g., Exodus 15:25b, only the second half of verse 25 is quoted or referred to).

cp. – compare

e.g. – Latin exempli gratia, meaning “for example”

f – And the following verse (e.g. Psalm 22:9f means verses 9 and 10 are quoted or referred to).

Gr. – Greek

Heb. – Hebrew

LXX – Septuagint: A third-century BC, Greek translation of the Hebrew OT.

NT – New Testament

OT – Old Testament

v. – verse

vv. – verses


Abbreviations and Notations in the ALT


      Following are the meanings of abbreviations and notations seen in the Analytical Literal Translation.


[wife] – Words added for clarity are bracketed (e.g., Matt 1:6). Within bracketed alternative translations, bracketed words indicate words added for clarity, i.e. “[or, the kingdom [of Satan]]” (Matt 8:12) indicates the words “of Satan” are added. 

[Isaiah 7:14] – Reference for the preceding OT quote. The quote itself is in italics (e.g., Matt 1:23). 

{from the place where he was} – Words in brace brackets appear in the Greek Septuagint but not in the Hebrew text (e.g., Gen 21:17).  

“Yahweh is Salvation” – Meaning of a proper name, placed in quotation marks (e.g., Matt 1:21). 

About – Modern–day equivalent for measurements and monetary units (e.g., Matt 13:33). 

ADAnno Domini. In the year of the Lord. Used in dates (e.g., Matt 3:1). 

BC – Before Christ. Used in dates (e.g., Matt 2:1). 

cp. – Compare. A cross reference (e.g., Matt 1:1). 

fig. – Figurative. Possible figurative meaning or paraphrase of preceding literal translation (e.g., Matt 1:18). 

Gr. – Greek. The Greek word previously translated, with the Greek letters transliterated (changed) into English letters (e.g., Matt 3:6). 

Heb. – Hebrew. The OT quote is taken from the Hebrew text of the OT and not the LXX since the quote matches the Hebrew but differs from the LXX (e.g., Matt 2:15). 

i.e.  – Latin id est, meaning “that is” or “in explanation” (e.g., Matt 2:11). 

lit. – Literal. Used when a less literal rendering is used in the text. 

LXX – Septuagint, a third century B.C., Greek translation of the Hebrew OT. The notation means the OT quote is taken from the LXX rather than from the Hebrew text since the quote matches the LXX but differs from the Hebrew (e.g., Matt 3:2). When there is no notation, it means the source could be either the Hebrew or the LXX (e.g., Matt 2:6). 

or – Alternative, traditional, or slightly less literal translation (e.g., Matt 1:2). 

see – Cross reference (e.g., John 18:32).



Miscellaneous ALT Abbreviations and Notations


 But – Indicates the use of the Greek strong adversative (alla – e.g., Matt 4:4) instead of the weak adversative (de, translated as “but” when used in an adversative sense – e.g., Matt 3:7). 

LORD – Lord – The former indicates the OT verse from which the quote is taken has Yahweh (the Hebrew proper name for God – Matt 4:7). The latter indicates the OT has adonai (the general word for “lord” – e.g., Matt 22:44). 

you – Indicates the pronoun is emphasized in the Greek text (also, he, she, etc. – e.g., Matt 3:11,14). 

you* – Indicates the original is plural (also, your* – e.g., Matt 2:8). With no asterisk the second person pronoun is singular (e.g., Matt 1:20).  


See also Standard References for this Website

 All items posted on this website are copyrighted by Gary F. Zeolla.

The above page was posted on this website January 4, 2019.
It was last updated March 30, 2019.

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