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Darkness to Light - Vol. XIV, No. 6

Darkness to Light
Volume XIV, Number 6

Presented by Darkness to Light Web site
Director: Gary F. Zeolla

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NEW! Why Are These Books in the Bible and Not Others? - Volume One - A Translator’s Perspective on the Canon of the Old Testament

This Volume One of a three volume set will study the books included in the Old Testament (OT) and consider other books that could have been included in it but were not. Each of the 39 books in the OT will be reviewed in detail, and it will be explained why they were included in the OT. Then the debate about the “extra” books found in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles as compared to Protestant and Jewish Bibles will be addressed. Lastly, other books that some wonder why they are not included in the OT will be discussed. It will be explained why these books were rejected.


Analytical-Literal Translation of the Apostolic Fathers
Volume Seven of the ALT

Translated by Gary F. Zeolla, the Director of Darkness to Light

    The Analytical-Literal Translation of the Apostolic Fathers: Volume Seven of the ALT (ALT: APF) contains the writings of Church leaders of the late first to early second centuries, most of whom were direct disciples of the apostles. Some of these books were seriously considered for inclusion in the canon of the NT. They were ultimately rejected for the canon, but all of these APF books were popular in the early centuries of the Church. They provide insight into the mindset of the early Church immediately after the apostles and give background to the NT.

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        The Analytical-Literal Translation of the Holy Bible (ALT) is translated By Gary F. Zeolla ( The ALT consists of seven volumes. They are.

Volume I – The Old Testament: The Torah (Genesis to Deuteronomy)
Volume II – The Old Testament: The Historical Books (Joshua to Esther)
Volume III – The Old Testament: The Poetic Books (Job to Song of Solomon)
Volume IV – The Old Testament: The Prophetic Books (Isaiah to Malachi)
Volume V – The Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical Books

Volume VI – The New Testament
Volume VII – The Apostolic Fathers

         Volumes I to IV contain the Old Testament (OT). All 39 of these books are considered canonical by Jews and all Christian groups. The word “canon” means list of authoritative books, so canonical books are those which are included in this list. They are believed to be inspired by God and reliable for basing doctrine and practice upon. As such, all 39 of these OT books are a trustworthy guide to correct faith and practice and to spiritual enrichment.

        Volume V is the Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical (A/D) Books. These are the “extra” books found in the OTs of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles as compared to Jewish Bibles and the OTs of Protestant Bibles. There is much debate over if these books are canonical or not. They were all written in the period between the end of the OT and the beginning of the New Testament (NT). They are thus included in the ALT as, inspired or not, they are worth reading and provide background to the NT.

        Volume VI contains the NT. All 27 of these books are considered canonical by all Christian groups. They are thus the bedrock on which Christian doctrine and practice are built upon and provide much spiritual benefit.

        This Volume VII of the ALT contains the Apostolic Fathers (APF).  These are the writings of Church leaders of the late first to mid-second centuries, most of whom were direct disciples of the apostles. Some of these books were seriously considered for inclusion in the canon of the NT. These are marked with an asterisk on the Table of Contents. They were ultimately rejected for the canon, but all of these APF books were popular in the early centuries of the Church. They give insight into the mindset of the early Church shortly after the apostles and provide background to the NT. As such, they are very much worth reading.

        But most Christians today are unaware of these APF books, and there are only a few English translations of the Greek language they were originally written in. To remedy these deficits, this Analytical-Literal Translation of the Apostolic Fathers is being presented to the English-speaking Christian public in hopes it will enrich understanding of the NT and of the time immediately after the apostles.

        The purpose of the ALT is to provide a translation of these APF books that will enable the English reader to come as close to the Greek texts as possible without having to be proficient in Greek. And the name of the ALT reflects this purpose.

        “Literal” refers to the fact that the ALT is a word for word translation. All words in the original text are translated—nothing is omitted. The original grammar of the text is retained as much as possible. Any words added for clarity are bracketed, so nothing is added without it being indicated as such.

        “Analytical” refers to the detailed “analysis” done on the grammar of the text. The grammar is then translated in a way which brings out “nuances” of the original text that are often missed in traditional translations.

        In addition, “analytical” refers to the aids that are included within the text which enable the reader to “analyze” and understand the text. Such information is bracketed. It includes the following: 

1. Alternative translations for words and phrases.

2. Possible figurative meanings or paraphrases of words and phrases.

3. Modern-day equivalents for measurement and monetary units and time designations.

4. Explanatory notes.

5. References for when an OT or NT verse is quoted in the APF, along with other cross-references.

         As such, the ALT is the ideal version for studying these important books. No other translation of them provides the accuracy and attention to detail the ALT provides.

        For background and in-depth discussions of the canonicity of all of the OT books, the A/D books, the NT books, and these APF books, see the translator’s three volume set, Why Are These Books in the Bible and Not Others? (see Appendix One). The bracketed headings for each APF book are based on the information in Volume Three of this set.


Table of Contents


Copyright Information


Abbreviations and Notations


The Apostolic Fathers


*The Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles; Did)

*1Clement (First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians; 1Cl)

2Clement (Second Epistle of Clement; 1Cl)

*Epistle of Barnabas (Bar)

Ignatius to the Ephesians (IEp)

Ignatius to the Magnesians (IMg)

Ignatius to the Trallians (ITr)

Ignatius to the Romans (IRo)

Ignatius to the Philadelphians (IPh)

Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans (ISm)

Ignatius to Polycarp (IPo)

Polycarp to the Philippians (Pol)

Martyrdom of Polycarp (MPo)

Epistle to Diognetus (Dio)

*Shepherd of Hermas (SHe):

  Visions (SHV)

  Mandates (SHM)

  Similitudes (SHS)                                                                                                                          



1 – Current Books by the Author

2 – Proposed Books by the Author

3 – Author’s Websites, Newsletters, and Social Sites/

        Contacting the Author


 Note: Asterisks indicate books that were most seriously considered for inclusion in the canon of the New Testament.

Sample Passages from the ALT: APF

Abbreviations and Notations

Following are the meanings of abbreviations and notations seen in the ALT text.


Abbreviations and Notations in Brackets


[River] Words added for clarity are bracketed (e.g., Did 2:1). But note, very often the definite article (“the”) is not used in the APF with the word kurios (“LORD” or “Lord”). But the added article is not bracketed in this case only as its frequency made it prohibitive to do so. 

[Gen 35:10] – Reference for when the OT, NT, or A/D books are quoted in the APF (e.g., Did 8:2). 

about Modern-day equivalent for measurements and monetary units (e.g., HV4 1:2). 

ADAnno Domino, Latin for “In the year of the Lord.” The traditional marker for the Common Era (CE). 

and throughout/ and in The bracketed information applies to all occurrences of the preceding word or phrase throughout the given range (e.g., Did 3:1). 

BC – “Before Christ.” The traditional marker for Before the Common Era (BCE). 

cp. Compare. A cross reference (e.g., Did 3:8). 

fig. Figurative. Possible figurative meaning or paraphrase of preceding literal translation (e.g., Did 1:5). 

Gr. Greek. The Greek word previously translated, with the Greek letters transliterated (changed) into English letters (e.g., Did 10:6). 

i.e.  – Explanatory note (“that is” or “in explanation”) (e.g., Did 1:5). 

Lit., literal. The strictly literal translation when a less than literal rendering is used in the main translation (SV3 1:8). 

or Alternative, traditional, or slightly less literal translation (e.g., Did 1:1). 

see Cross reference (e.g., 1Cl 10:7).


Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Notations


But Indicates the use of the Greek strong adversative (alla e.g., Did 1:6) instead of the weak adversative (de, translated as “but” when used in an adversative sense – e.g., Did 1:1).

LORD – Lord The former indicates the Hebrew OT being quoted has Yahweh (the Hebrew proper name for God –1Cl 12:5). The latter indicates the Hebrew OT has adonai (the general word for “lord”)  (e.g., 1Cl 18:15).

you Indicates the pronoun is emphasized in the Greek text (also, he, she, etc. – e.g., Did 1:3).

you* Indicates the original is plural (also, your* e.g., Did 1:3). With no asterisk the second person pronoun is singular (e.g., Did 1:1).

{…} – Encloses words that are bracketed in the Greek text, indicating the evidence is split as to if they were part of the original text or not (e.g., Did 1:1). Also used to indicate textual variants, using the abbreviation “mss” for manuscripts, thus “some mss” indicates only some Greek texts have the enclosed words (e.g., 1Cl 45:8).

[^^^] – Preceding this notation is a direct quote for which the translator was not able to determine the source, even with checking the OT, NT, A/D books, and even some OT pseudepigraphical books and NT apocryphal books. If the reader is able to find the source, please contact me (see Appendix Three).

A/D – Apocryphal/ Deuterocanonical Books
Analytical-Literal Translation
– Apostolic Fathers
– Old Testament
– New Testament

Note: Below are excerpts from some of these APF books. Each excerpt begins with the header for the book to be found in the ALT [in brackets]. Then are excerpts from the book itself.


The Didache

(Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

        [This book was probably written between 80-120 AD, so it is doubtful it was actually written by the twelve apostles. But it was held in high regard in the early Church, in a secondary place to the canonical New Testament books. It gives us a look into the practices of the early Church and is filled with sound ethical injunctions.]

    1There are two ways--one of the life and one of the death; but much difference between the two ways. 2Therefore, on the one hand, [the] way of the life is this: First, you will love God, the One having made you; second, your neighbor as yourself; and all [things], as many as if you shall desire not to be happening to you, also you stop doing to another [cp. Matt 22:37-39; 7:12; Tob 4:15] (Did 1:1-2).

    1Now [the] second commandment of the Teaching: 2You will not commit murder. You will not commit adultery. You will not commit pederasty [or, sexually abuse boys]. You will not commit fornication. You will not steal. You will not practice magic. You will not practice witchcraft [or, use enchantments]. You will not murder a child with corruption [fig., by an abortion], nor will you kill one having been begotten. You will not desire [or, covet] the [things] of your neighbor. 3You will not swear falsely [or, commit perjury]. You will not bear false witness. You will not speak evil [or, use abusive language]. You will not bear a grudge. [Exod 20:12-16; Deut 5:16-20; Matt 19:18] (Did 2:1-3).

    1But concerning baptism [or, immersion], in this way baptize [or, immerse]: Having said beforehand all these [things], baptize into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit in living [fig., running] water. [Matt 28:19] 2But if you shall not have living water, baptize into other water; and if you are not able in cold [water], in warm [water]. 3But if you shall not have both [or, either], pour out water three times upon the head into [the] name of [the] Father and Son and Holy Spirit. 4But before the baptism let the one baptizing be fasting, and the one being baptized, and if any others are able; but order the one being baptized to fast one or two [days] before (Did 7:1-4).



(First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians)

        [This book was written c. 96 AD by Clement of Rome, third overseer of that city from c. 88-97 AD. This might be the same Clement mentioned in Philippians 4:3. He was probably a disciple of the apostle Peter. This book was held in high regard in the early Church, in a secondary place to the canonical New Testament books. It presents much orthodox theology and reads almost like a Pauline epistle.]

[After discussing various OT figures, Clement writes:]

    3Therefore, all were honored and exalted, not because of them or their works or the just dealings which they produced, but account of His will. 4Therefore also we, having been called by His will in Christ Jesus, are not justified by ourselves, nor by our wisdom or understanding or godliness or works which we have produced in holiness of heart, but by the faith through which from the beginning Almighty God justified all [people], to whom be the glory into the ages of the ages. [fig., forever and ever.] So be it!.

    1Therefore, what shall we do, brothers [and sisters]? Shall we become idle from the well-doing and forsake the love? No way may the Master permit this indeed to become in us! But let us hasten with earnestness and eagerness to be accomplishing every good work. [cp. Eph 2:8-10] (1Cl 32:3-4; 33:1).

    [After quoting Psalm 50:16-23, Clement writes:]

    1This [is] the way, beloved, in which we found our Savior—Jesus Christ, the High Priest of our offerings, the Defender and Helper of our weaknesses. 2By means of this One we gaze into the heights of the heavens. By means of this One we see as in a mirror His unblemished and supreme appearance. By means of this One the eyes of our heart are opened. By means of this One our senseless and having been darkened mind grows again into the light. By means of this One the Master willed [for] us to taste of the immortal knowledge, who being [the] outshining of His majesty is by so much greater [than] are the angels, as much as He has inherited an excellent Name. [Heb 1:3f] (1Cl 36:1-2).


Epistles of Ignatius

        [Note: Ignatius was a disciple of the apostle John and overseer of Antioch. His seven epistles were written as he was being taken from Antioch to Rome to be martyred. This was during the latter half of the reign of Emperor Trajan, in 107-117 AD. These letters were held in high regard in the early Church. It was probably only their late date, after the last apostle had died, that kept them from being included in the New Testament.

        Ignatius puts an emphasis on right belief. He especially taught the full humanity and full the deity of Jesus Christ. He also emphasizes the importance of the local assembly (church), its unity, and the obedience of its members to its overseer (bishop), body of elders (presbyters), and ministers (deacons), while rejecting false teachers.]

    1For some have been accustomed to be carrying about the Name in wicked deceit, but practicing some other [things] unworthy of God, whom it is necessary for you* to be turning aside from as [from] wild beasts. For they are raving dogs, who bite secretly, whom it is necessary for you* to be guarding against, [they] being hard to cure. 2There is one Physician, both fleshly and spiritual, born and unborn [or, begotten and unbegotten], God in man {some mss, God having become in flesh}, true life in death, both from Mary and from God; first subject to suffering and then not subject to suffering, Jesus Christ our Lord (IEp 7:1-2).

    1Therefore, be making every effort to be confirmed in the dogmas [or, decrees] of the Lord and of the Apostles, that all, as many [things] as you* do, shall prosper in flesh and in spirit, in faith and in love; in [the] Son and Father and in [the] Spirit, in [the] beginning and in [the] end; with your* worthy of honor overseer and [the] worthily woven spiritual victor’s wreath [or, crown] of your* body of elders and of [the] ministers according to God [or, godly deacons]. 2Be subjected to the overseer and to one another, as Jesus Christ to the Father {according to the flesh}, and the Apostles to Christ and to the Father {and to the Spirit}, that both fleshly and spiritual should be a unity (IMg 13:1-2).

    1Therefore, be deaf whenever anyone speaks to you* apart from Jesus Christ, the [One] from [the] race of David, the [One] from Mary; who was truly born, both ate and drink. He was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate. He was truly crucified and died, seeing [or, being seen by] the heavenly [beings] and earthly [beings] and subterranean [beings], 2who also was truly raised from dead [ones], His Father having raised Him up, according to which likeness [or, fashion] the Father will also raise us up, the ones believing in Him by Christ Jesus, apart from whom we do not have the true life (ITr 9:1-2).

    1I write to all the assemblies and give orders to all [people], that I die willingly for the sake of God, if only you* do not hinder [me]. I urge you* not to become an untimely good-will to me. Permit me to be food of wild beasts, through whom it is within [my grasp] to obtain of God. I am [the] wheat of God, and I am ground by [the] teeth of wild beasts, that I shall be found clean [or, pure] bread of Christ. 2Rather entice the wild beasts, that they become a tomb to me, and I shall leave nothing of my body; that having fallen asleep, I shall not become a burden to anyone. At that time, I will truly be a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world will not even see my body. Entreat Christ {some mss, the Lord} on behalf of me, that through these instruments I shall be found a sacrifice {to God} (IRo 4:1-2).


Polycarp to the Philippians

        [Note: Polycarp was a disciple of the apostle John and overseer of Smyrna. His epistle was written about the same time as the seven epistles by Ignatius, or in 107-117 AD, as each refers to the other. This letter is similar in tone to the letters of Ignatius. However, it suffers from one major theological problem when it quotes Tobit 4:10; 12:9, “alms deliver from death.” But otherwise, this is a very uplifting and doctrinally sound epistle.]

    3Likewise also, [let] young men [be] blameless in all [things], above all thinking of [or, planning for] purity beforehand and bridling [or, restraining] themselves from every evil; for [it is] good to be hindered from the lusts in the world, since “every lust serves as a soldier [or, wages war] against the spirit” (1Pet 2:11), and “neither fornicators, nor passive partners in male-male sex, nor active partners in male-male sex will inherit the kingdom of God” (1Cor 6:9), nor the ones doing the improper [things]. Because of which, it is being necessary to be keeping distant from all of these [things], being subjected to the elders [or, presbyters] and ministers as to God and to Christ. The virgins [are] to be walking about with a blameless and pure conscience (Pol 5:3).

    1Therefore, I urge you* all to be being obedient {to the word of the righteousness} and to be practicing all patient endurance, which also you* saw before [your*] eyes, not only in the blessed Ignatius and Zosimus and Rufus, but also in others from you*, and in Paul himself and in the remaining Apostles, 2having been persuaded that all these did not run in vain, but in faith and righteousness, and that they are in the place being owed to them beside the Lord, with whom also they suffered. For they did not love the present age, but the One having died on our behalf and having been raised by God on account of us (Pol 9:1-2).


Martyrdom of Polycarp

        [Note: Polycarp was a disciple of the apostle John and overseer of Smyrna. He was martyred about 155 AD. This book was written shortly afterwards. It is a thrilling account of the martyrdom of an important figure in the early Church.]

    1Now, Polycarp entering into the stadium, there became a voice from heaven, “Be being strong, O Polycarp, and be acting like a man [fig., be being courageous]!” And on the one hand, no one saw the one having spoken; on the other hand, the ones of ours being present heard the voice. And at last him having been brought forward, there was a great commotion, having heard that Polycarp had been arrested. 2Therefore, having been brought forward, the proconsul asked him if he might be Polycarp. Now confessing [it], he began trying to persuade [him] to be denying, saying, “Respect your age,” and different [things] following these [things], as a custom to them to be saying, “Swear an oath [by] the fortune of Caesar; repent, say, ‘Be taking the atheists away.’” [Note: “the atheists” here refers to the Christians, because they refused to worship the gods of the Romans.]

    But Polycarp, having looked attentively with a stern countenance into all the crowd in the stadium of lawless Gentiles, and waving his hand towards them, both having groaned and having looked up into heaven, he said, “Be taking the atheists away!” [Note: “The atheists” here refers to the Romans, because they refused to only worship the one true God of the Christians.] 3Now the proconsul pressing [him] and saying, “Swear an oath, and I will release you; revile Christ.” Polycarp said, “Eighty and six years I serve as a bondservant to Him, and He did me no wrong at all. And how am I able to blaspheme my King, the One having saved me?”

    1But his [i.e., the proconsul’s] persisting again and saying, “Swear an oath [by] the fortune of Caesar,” he answered, “If you vainly suppose that I should swear an oath [by] the fortune of Caesar, as you say, but pretending to be being me unware [or, that I am unaware of] who I am, be hearing with boldness: I am a Christian! And if you desire to learn the word [or, doctrine] of Christianity, give [or, appoint] a day, and hear” (Pol 9:1-10:1).

    [For the rest of this thrilling narrative, you will have to order the book.]


Epistle to Diognetus

        [Note: The author of this epistle is unknown, but the recipient might have been the teacher of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. If so, then it was written during his reign (161-180 AD). If not, then it was written anytime from 100 to 313 AD.

        This epistle is an eloquent document. It presents a scathing attack on idol worship, exposing how foolish it is; it exposes the foolishness of Jewish superstitions, using biting sarcasm, and it defends Christians as being good citizens of the emperor, who are not deserving of the persecution they are receiving. There is also a powerful presentation of the Gospel.

        The last two chapters are by a different unknown author and at an unknown time. They are an ode to the Word and revisits the events in the Garden of Eden, applying them to Christians. But it is rather confused in its phraseology.]

    1Since I see, O good Diognetus, you having taken exceedingly great pains to learn the reverence for God of the Christians, and inquiring altogether clearly and diligently concerning them; and in what God having [or, they have] trusted, and how [they are] religiously observing Him, and all disregard the world and despise death. And they neither account the ones being supposed [to be] gods by the Greeks, nor keeping the religion of the Jews. And what [is] the affection they hold toward one another; and why indeed at this time this new race or practice now entered into the life [or, world] and not long ago. 2I indeed welcome you of this eagerness. And I ask from God, the One both supplying to us to be speaking and to be hearing, to grant to me on the one hand to speak in this way, as especially having heard you to become better; on the other hand, to you in this way to hear, as not [I] having spoken to be grieved (Dio 1:1-2).

    1For Christians are having been distinguished from the remaining people neither by land nor by speech nor by customs, 2for neither inhabiting their own cities somewhere, nor do they use any having been differentiated dialect, nor do they practice a peculiar life. 3This lesson by them is not indeed having been found by any deliberation and care of much-busy men; nor have they put before [others] human dogmas, just as some (Dio 5:1-2).

    6They marry as all [people]. They bear children, but they do not cast away the ones being born. 7They set before themselves a common table, but not a [common] marriage bed. 8They happen [or, are] in [the] flesh, but they do not live according to [the] flesh. 9They stay upon [the] earth, but they conduct themselves as citizens in heaven. 10They obey the having been designated laws, and they surpass the laws in their own lives (Dio 5:6-10).


Shepherd of Hermas: Visions

        [Note: The three books comprising the Shepherd of Hermas were probably written by two different men. The first man is the Hermas mentioned in Romans 16:14, writing in the late first century. The second is the brother of Pius, bishop of Rome, writing during his bishopric of 137-154 AD. These books were held in high regard in the early Church, in a secondary place to the canonical NT books.

        This first book contains visions seen by Hermas. These visions are interesting, and it is obvious why this book had such appeal in the early Church. The interpretations of these visions have to do with Hermas’ own spiritual state and that of the Church at large. The interpretations would have relevance for us today.]

    1{Vision 1} The one having nourished me [or, having brought me up] had sold me to a certain Rhode in Rome. Many years after this I might [or, would] make myself known, and I began to be loving her as a sister. 2After some time, I saw [her] bathing in the river Tiber; and I gave to her my hand and brought her out of the river. Therefore, having seen of the beauty of this [woman], I began reasoning in my heart, saying I [would] be blessed [or, happy] if I was having such a woman [or, wife], both with the beauty and with the manner [or, character]. And in this only did I deliberate, but not one [thing] different (HV1 1:1-2).

    4Now praying me [or, while I prayed], heaven [or, the sky] was opened, and I see that woman whom I desired greeting me from heaven [or, the sky], saying, “Greetings, Hermas!” 5And having looked up to her, I say to her, “Lady, what are you doing here?” But she answered to me, “I was taken up that I should reprove your sins before the Lord!” 6I say to her, “Now, are you my reproof?” She says, “No, but hear the words which I am being about to be speaking to you. The God dwelling in the heavens and having created from the [thing] not being [or, existing] the [things] being [or, existing] and having multiplied and having increased [them] on account of His Holy Assembly [or, Church] was angered by you because you sinned against me.” 7Having answered, I say to her, “Did I sin against you? In what manner? Or when did I speak a shameful word? I always regarded you as a goddess, did I not? I always respected you as a sister, did I not? Why do you falsely accuse me, O woman, [of] these wicked and unclean [things]?”

    8Having laughed, she says to me, “The desire of the wickedness went up over your heart! [cp. Matt 5:28] Or does it seem to you, to a righteous man, to be a wicked deed if the wicked desire [or, lust] goes up over his heart? It is indeed a sin, and a great [one],” she said, “for the righteous man deliberates righteous [things]. Therefore, by him to be deliberating righteous [things], his glory is set upright [or, established] in the heavens, and he has the easily placated Lord in his every deed. But the ones deliberating wicked [things] in their hearts bring upon themselves death and captivity; especially the ones gaining the [things of] this age and priding themselves in their riches and not being devoted to the being about to be good [things]. 9Their souls will regret, whoever not having hope, but they have despaired of themselves and their life. But you, be praying towards God, and He will heal your sins and of your whole house and of all of the holy [ones].” (HV1 1:4-9).


Shepherd of Hermas: Mandates

        [Note: The Greek word entole rendered “mandate” in this book is generally rendered “commandment” elsewhere in the OT, the NT, and the APF, including in the other two books of the Shepherd. The ALT follows these traditional renderings.

        This book consists of twelve mandates or commandants which “the angel of the repentance” gives to Hermas. These mandates are instructive as to what the early Church considered good versus wicked, and they would still be appropriate for us today. But the emphasis on works over faith tends towards legalism.]

    3“What,” I say, “lord, are the wicked [things] from which it is necessary for us to be exercising self-control?” “Be hearing,” he says, “from adultery and fornication, from unlawful intoxicating drink, from wicked luxury, from many meals [or, meats] and extravagance of riches and boasting, and haughtiness and arrogance, and from lies and evil speaking [or, slander] and hypocrisy, remembrance of wrongs, and every blasphemy. 4These are the works of all wicked [things] in the life of the people. Therefore, it is necessary for the bondservant of God to be exercising self-control from these works. For the one not exercising self-control from these is not able to live to God.” (HM8 1:3-4a).

    “Be hearing,” he says, “also the good works which it is necessary for you to be working and not to be exercising self-control. 9First of all faith, fear of the Lord, love, harmony, sayings of righteousness, truth, patience. Nothing is better in the life of people [than] these [things]. If anyone shall keep these [things] and shall not exercise self-control from them, he becomes blessed [or, happy] in his life. 10Then hear the [things] following these: to be providing for widows, to be looking after orphans and to be visiting the ones being in need, to be redeeming the bondservants of God from necessities [or, distresses], to be being hospitable, {for in the hospitality is found doing good, then} to be setting yourself in opposition against no one, to be being quiet [or, calm], to be becoming poorer [or, less needy] [than] all people, to be reverencing the elderly men, to be practicing righteousness, to be preserving [the] brotherhood [fig., fellowship of believers], to be enduring insult, to be being patient, not to be having remembrance of wrongs, to be encouraging ones weary in soul, not to be casting aside ones having stumbled from the faith, but to be turning [them] back and to be making [them] cheerful, to be admonishing ones sinning, not to be oppressing debtors and needy [people], and if there is anything like to these [things]. (HM8 1:8b-10).

Scripture taken from the Analytical-Literal Translation of the Apostolic Fathers: Volume VII of the ALT. Copyright © 2016 By Gary F. Zeolla (


Why Are These Books in the Bible and Not Others?
Volume One
A Translator’s Perspective on the Canon of the Old Testament

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