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Darkness to Light - Vol. V, No.3

Darkness to Light
Volume V, Number 3


Presented by Darkness to Light Web site
Director: Gary F. Zeolla

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Analytical-Literal Translation Three-Volume Project

      Currently available on the Web site is the Analytical-Literal Translation eBook Package. This package consists of the second edition of the Analytical-Literal Translation (ALT2), the Companion Volume to the ALT, and the Complete Concordance to the ALT.

      All three books are available in Microsoft eBook format. But only the ALT is available in paperback and hardback formats, along with in Acrobat Reader eBook formats from AuthorHouse. But I now have a new publisher, Lulu Publishing. I've already published two books with them (God-given Foods Eating Plan and Overcoming Back Pain: A Mind-Body Solution).

      Publishing with Lulu is much less expensive than it was with AuthorHouse. So I realized it would be possible to publish in hardcopy format the Companion Volume and the Complete Concordance. But before doing so, I am revising both of these, along with the ALT itself. The latter will be the third edition and known as ALT3.

      This is explained in the following questions and answers, adapted from the chapter "Frequently Asked Questions" in the new version of the Companion Volume.


What is the history of the three different editions of the ALT?


      Work on the ALT began in November of 1998. The first step was to update the archaic language in Young's Literal Translation (YLT), which was used as base text for the ALT. The text was then reviewed numerous times, with the ALT's special features being added. ALT1 was published in September 2001 by AuthorHouse (then known as 1stBooks).

      Over the next few years, I was periodically reviewing and updating the text. And I found many needed corrections and improvements that could be made. So I was not satisfied with the text as it stood.

      As a result, in December of 2003 I decided to have a second edition of the ALT published. In preparation for ALT2, the text was again reviewed numerous times. Changes were made to increase the accuracy and consistency of the translations and to improve the readability. ALT2 was published in March 2005 and is available from the publisher's Web site ( or by calling 1-888-280-7715.

      The accuracy of ALT2 was much improved over ALT1. In initially reviewing the text, only a handful of minor errors were found. But there were still some areas that could be improved. Moreover, I also switched from AuthorHouse to Lulu Publishing.

      Publication with Lulu is less expensive, and that gave me the idea to publish the Companion Volume and the Complete Concordance through Lulu. But it seemed good that if these books were available though Lulu, then the ALT itself should be as well.

      For these reasons, in February of 2007, I decided to start working on ALT3. For ALT3, the entire text is once again being repeatedly reviewed. Changes are being made to make the text even more literal, additional bracketed materials are being added to aid the reader in comprehending the text, and corrections are being made as needed. So ALT3 will represent a thoroughly reviewed and accurate text.

      When ALT3 is finally published, I should be fully satisfied with the text. It should be as error free as a text can be, and I will able to include all the special features that I want to.


Why are there different formats for the different editions of the ALT?


      ALT1 utilized a verse-paragraph format, meaning each verse started on a new line. This format was used simply because it was the format the digital files for YLT were in that I started with.

      ALT1 was published on 6"x9" pages, in single columns, using Times New Roman 11 point font, which is the same font and size used in most books, such as my God-given Foods Eating Plan book.

      Appendix #1 in ALT1 was a list of "Significant Textual Variants." It was printed using the smaller Times 10 font, but it still took up 35 pages.

      The headers for ALT1 consisted of the name of the book on the right-hand side and my name on the left. I was not pleased with the latter, but it was the publisher which formatted it that way. Including the introductory pages and appendixes, altogether, ALT1 was 584 pages long. This was a rather large and expensive book.

      ALT2 was also published on 6"x9" pages. But to get the cost to the consumer down, some formatting changes were made. The text was changed to regular paragraph format, and the first appendix only consisted of "Important Textual Variants," which took up only 13 pages.

      But the biggest change in terms of the size of the book was to reduce the font size for the entire text to Times 10. This print size is rather small, but it is still readable print for most people and is larger than the print size found in most Bibles. With these changes, ALT2 was only 402 pages long. This made for a less expensive volume.

      Also, the headers in ALT2 were similar to that seen in most Bibles, consisting of the Bible book and first and last chapter and verse appearing on that page (e.g. page 1 had "Matthew 1:1-23"). I had to pay the publisher to do this manually, but I thought the improved ease of use would be worth it.

      For ALT3, the biggest formatting change will be to switch to using 8˝" x 11" pages and to print the text in double-columns. This will be done since the cost of a book is based on the number of pages not the size of the pages. So by using larger pages, the number of pages and hence the cost to the consumer will be reduced. Double-columns make the text easier to read with the larger pages and slightly reduce the number of pages.

      I considered reducing the font size to Times 9 to lower the cost further. This is the font size seen in most Bibles. But the reduction in page number would not have been that significant and Times 9 is considerably more difficult to read than Times 10. So I am sticking with Times 10 for ALT3. But the Concordance will probably be in Times 9 to stay within Lulu's maximum page limit. But this is still larger than the Times 8 seen in most concordances, while the Companion Volume will be in Times 11 as that is standard for most books.

      ALT3 will also use the shorter "Important Textual Variants" appendix, but with the larger pages and double-columns, it will only be 6 pages long. But the Companion Volume will include the longer "Significant Textual Variants" list for those who are interested in the greater detail.

      The Companion Volume will also include a list of "Alternate Byzantine Text Readings." These are the footnoted, alternate readings of the Byzantine Majority Greek Text the ALT is based on. These indicate places where the Byzantine Greek manuscripts are closely divided. These lists will be of great value to the person interested in studying the issue of textual variants.

      Altogether, the ALT3 text will only be 222 pages. This will make for an even less expensive volume. The only way to get it smaller would be to go with Times 9 font. If there is a demand for a text with this print size, it would be considered.

      In any case, the headers for ALT3 will consist of just the Bible book name. With the new publisher it will not be possible to include chapter and verses as with ALT2. However, almost every page of the text will have a new chapter beginning, indicated by a larger, bolded, chapter number (Arial 26 font). So the headers will tell readers what book they are in, and a simple glance down the page will tell them where in the book they are. So it is still easy to look up a verse.

      So there have been many formatting changes to the ALT through the different editions, but these have mainly been to try to make the ALT less expensive and thus more accessible to the consumer.

      As a side note, it will be to keep the cost as low to the consumer as possible that 8˝" x 11" pages in double columns will be used for the Companion Volume and triple columns for the Complete Concordance. The double column format is also used for my first book published with Lulu, God-given Foods Eating Plan.


Additional Notes


      As indicated, I started this project in February of this year (2007). I can only estimate that it will take me several months to finish. I am planning on waiting until all three volumes are ready to publish them all at the same time through Lulu. I am doing so since as I am working on ALT3, it gives me ideas for something to add to or change in the Companion Volume, and vice-a-versa. And when I reformat the text and review the entries for the Concordance I might find something that needs changing in ALT3. So it would be best to wait until all three are ready for publication.

        Also, this way, when they are available, all three volumes can be ordered at once, which will reduce postage costs for the consumer. But by waiting for all three volumes to be ready, it might not be until 2008 when they are ready. But I am announcing this project now so that readers will have time to make suggestions for any additions, changes, or corrections you think are needed for ALT3 or even for the Companion Volume. To do so, you will need a copy of ALT2 and/ or of the Companion Volume.

      As for the Concordance, the version currently available for download on the site is based on ALT1. Reese Currie developed the software program used to generate the list of words and partial verses for that concordance, and he has graciously offered to do so again for the new concordance, so it will be based on ALT3.

      Once this project is finished, I am hoping it will make for a very helpful three-volume Bible study resource.

      Reese is also working on a Bible Search Utility for the ALT. This will be a simple software program with the ALT3 text. This program will make it easy to look up verses and do word searches in the ALT. I've been using an advance copy of it in working on ALT3, and it is very helpful. It will be a good companion to the three-volume set.


Glossary and Translation Notes


      To give the reader some idea of what this project entails, below are few sample entries from Chapter Six: "Glossary and Translation Notes" that will be seen in the new Companion Volume. Most of the indicated bracketed materials will be new for ALT3.


Believe:  Greek, pisteuo.

      The verb pisteuo can have a variety of connotations. It can refer to trusting in or having confidence in someone (usually God or Christ), accepting or being convinced something is true, having faith in something or someone, having the faith to do something, or entrusting or being entrusted with something (Friberg).

      The English word "believe" has all of these connotations (Webster's). So a form of "believe" is consistently used to translate pisteuo. However, to emphasize the appropriate connotation in important contexts, one of the other possible connotations is often bracketed as an alternative translation (e.g. John 3:12; 9:35; 14:29; 20:31).


 Faith: Greek, pistis.

      Friberg defines this word as "as belief directed toward a person or thing confidence, faith, trust, reliance on." Webster's defines "faith" as "confidence or trust in a person or thing." So "faith" is a good rendering for the Greek word. But since "trust" is also implied, this is given as an alternative translation as context warrants (e.g. Rom 3:22).

      However, the Greek and English words can also refer to the content of what a person believes or the essential doctrines of a belief system. In these cases, it is usually preceded by the article. In such cases, the alterative translation is given of "essential doctrines" (e.g. Jude 1:3).


Heart:  Greek, kardia.

      When used figuratively, the word "heart" in Scripture does not have the English connotation of referring to just the emotions. In Greek, the word includes the entire inner person, including the intellect, will (or volition), emotions, intuition, and conscience. Thus "heart" refers to the immaterial or "inner self" apart from the physical body. Although in some contexts one of these aspects is more in view than the others.

      So "inner self" would be the most general figurative rendering. But since "heart" is the literal meaning of the term it is used in the text. Meanwhile the first time in a book kardia is used, following in brackets is: "i.e., the entire inner self, including the intellect, volition, and emotions" (e.g. Matt 5:8).


Heaven, Sky: Greek, ouranos.

      In the Gospels and Acts, this word when it is referring to the abode of God often occurs in the plural with the article preceding. So it is rendered "the heavens" rather than just "heaven" as most versions have it (e.g. Matt 6:9).

      The reason for the plural is, "a Jewish concept, originally found in the Septuagint, that heaven is comprised of several spheres, with God dwelling in the highest heaven" (Friberg).

      But the same word can also refer to the sky. It is rendered as such as context dictates (e.g. Matt 16:2). The word can also refer to where the planets and stars are located (e.g. Matt 24:29). Here, "heaven" is given as the main reading, with "outer space" in brackets. Note also, in such verses "stars" (Greek, asteres) possibly indicates meteors or comets falling to the earth. This is indicated in brackets.

      So there are three "heavens" – the sky, outer space, and the abode of God, hence why Paul said he was "carried off to [the] third heaven" (2Cor 12:2), meaning the abode of God.


Mercy seat; Propitiation; Be propitious:  Greek: hilasterios; hilasmos, hilaskomai.

      These three cognate, Greek words are an adjective, noun, and verb respectively. The first is translated "mercy seat" in Rom 3:25 and Heb 9:5. In the latter it refers to the cover on the ark in the Jewish Temple. It was here that animals were sacrificed to atone for sins (see Lev 16:13-15). Paul's application of the word to Jesus in Romans shows Jesus is now the place where atonement for sins is to be found. The alternative of "propitiation" is then given to show the relationship with the noun and verb.

      The noun and verb then have similar meanings. The noun appears in 1John 2:2; 4:10. It is rendered as "propitiation" and refers to Jesus' act of taking God the Father's wrath against our sins upon Himself. To put it another way, Jesus, by His sacrifice, appeases God's wrath, so "appeasing sacrifice" is given as an alternative.

      The verb occurs in Heb 2:17 and, interestingly, in Luke 18:13 where it is included in the tax collector's prayer. It is rendered in these verses as "make propitiation" and "be propitious," respectively. Forgiveness of sins, reconciliation to God, and redemption from sin all occur as a result of Jesus' propitiation.


Prostrate in worship [or, reverence]: Greek, proskuneo.

      The primary meaning of the word is the body position of being on one's knees with the face to the ground. But the important point is the reason the person is doing so. It is to worship a perceived deity or to show reverence or respect for a very important person.

      However, there can sometimes be debate as to which of these two attitudes is meant in a given context. Most especially, when people are prostrating themselves before Jesus, are they doing so because they recognize Jesus is God in the flesh and thus are worshipping Him, or are they just showing respect to Jesus as being a prophet of God?

      In such cases, the most likely option is presented first in the main text, then the less likely option in brackets (e.g. Matt 2:11). But in most cases, there is no doubt as to which attitude meant, so only one option is given (e.g. Matt 4:10).


Repent, Repentance:  Greek, metanoeo, metanoia.

      These words have the basic idea of "to change ones mind." More fully, to truly repent is to change your mind completely about your sin, acknowledging it is wrong in the eyes of God, and to be broken in heart before God because of your sin (Ps 34:18; 51:3,17; Isa 6:5; Hos 5:15; Rom 7:24). Repentance further involves desiring to turn from the sin and to follow God's commandments, looking to Christ for the strength to do so (Matt 3:2,8; Acts 26:20; John 15:4,5; Phil 4:13).

      For these reasons, the explanation of "a change of mind and desire leading to change of behavior" is given the first time the word "repentance" occurs in a book (e.g. Matt 3:8).



Friberg, Timothy and Barbara. Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament. 1994. On BibleWorks™ for Windows™. Copyright © 1992-2003 BibleWorks, L.C.C. Big Fork, MT: Hermeneutika. Programmed by Michael S. Bushell and Michael D. Tan.

Webster's Talking Dictionary/ Thesaurus. Licensed property of Parson's Technology, Inc. v. 1.0b. Software Copyright 1996 by Exceller Software Corp. Based on Random House Webster's College Dictionary. Copyright 1995 by Random House, Inc.



New Edition of Back Pain Booklet


As indicted above, now available from Lulu is my booklet Overcoming Back Pain: a Mind-Body Solution. It had previously only been available in MS Reader format for download from the site. But it is now available in paperback and Acrobat Reader format from Lulu Publishing. Prior to publication, I reviewed the entire text and added a chapter to bring it up to date. Below is the Preface and Table of Contents for the new edition.



I was a national champion powerlifter in college. In the 123 pound weight class, I was able to squat and deadlift over 400 pounds. But I had to cease competing due to low back pain that developed in the fall of 1982.

For the next thirteen years the pain or the fear of it severely limited what physical activities I could engage in, and I couldn’t lift more than twenty pounds without experiencing pain.

Then the pain worsened in the spring of 1994 to the point where I was crippled by it for the next six years. I couldn’t even lift more than two pounds due to the pain. I also had to spend the bulk of my day laying flat on my back.

During those years of crippling low back pain, I tried just about every traditional and alternative treatment that is recommended for back pain. But nothing worked.

However, I finally found complete relief in the spring of 2000. And in the seven years since that time the pain has not returned in any significant degree, and I am now living my life back pain free.

In fact, I started competing in powerlifting again. And once again, I am squatting and deadlifting over 400 pounds, only now competing at 114s. I am now a top-ranked master powerlifter, holding 27 records set in three different powerlifting federations.

This booklet describes the traditional and alternative back pain treatments I tried and what finally worked. So if the reader is suffering from low back pain, be assured there is a solution. I am living proof of that.


Table of Contents

Preface – 5

Part One: Beginnings of Back Pain – 7

Part Two: Various Treatments – 15

Part Three: The Solution – 23

Part Four: Steps to Recovery – 31

Part Five: Powerlifting Again – 39

Conclusion/ Bibliography – 43

Appendix One: Additional Books by the Author – 45

Appendix Two: Web Sites and Newsletters by the Author – 47

Also by Gary F. Zeolla:
Fitness for One and All
Web site and FitTips for One and All newsletter.
Helping people to attain their health, fitness, and performance goals.


All material in this newsletter is copyrighted © 2007 by Gary F. Zeolla.