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Statistical Refutations of Covid Deniers and Antivaxxers

(Coronavirus Statistics and Other Updates)

Part Two

By Gary F. Zeolla


This two-part article is continued from: Statistical Refutations of Covid Deniers and Antivaxxers: Part One.


Casual Versus Causal Connections


      A few weeks ago, here in the Pittsburgh, PA area, an expected tragedy occurred. A seemingly healthy 12-year-old boy dropped dead during basketball practice. There was no apparent cause for his death. But upon an autopsy, it was revealed it was due to “a natural cause involving a coronary artery” (Trib Live. Chartiers).

      Something similar happened near Philadelphia, when a seemingly healthy high school senior died after a soccer game. It was ruled to be due to a “sudden cardiac arrest” (Pen Live. Pa.). In both cases, the heart or artery condition was unknown prior to their deaths.

      Why I am I telling these stories here? Did they get a Covid vaccine that led to their deaths? There are no reports of the had been vaccinated, and the coroners were clear they died of natural causes. But what if they had been vaccinated a week before? I am sure the Covid antivaxxers would have been abuzz, declaring the vaccine caused their deaths. Even after the autopsy showed a heart or artery condition caused the deaths, I am sure the antivaxxers would claim the vaccine caused those problems.

      I explained in a previous article that people die all the time for all types of reasons, and sometimes, for no apparent reason at all. As such, just because someone gets a vaccine then dies shortly afterwards, it does not mean the vaccine caused the death. Only a skilled coroner can determine the cause of death. But Covid antivaxxers all seem to think they have suddenly received medical degrees and are qualified to declare the cause of death in a particular case.

      This again is why deaths reported on the federal Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) cannot be looked to as reliable indicators of deaths caused by the Covid vaccines. If this 12-year-old boy or high school senior had received the vaccine, their deaths would have been recorded on that system. But again, a detailed autopsy would show their deaths were due to natural cases and in no way related to the vaccine.

      The same goes for health problems allegedly caused by the vaccines. Again, people develop health problems all the time, for all kinds of reasons, and sometimes, for no apparent reason. But if someone develops a health problem shortly after receiving a Covid vaccine, the antivaxxers will jump on it and claim the vaccine caused the problem. But in fact, there might be no causal connection whatsoever. They are just casual connections, not causal connections.

      For instance, when I developed Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS), there was no obvious precipitating factor. The condition just began one morning, and that was that. And I have been dealing wit it ever since. But if I had received a vaccine the week before, antivaxxers would claim the vaccine caused the RLS. But the vaccine would have just had a casual connection to the RLS, not a causal connection.

      A casual connection is when something happens then something else happens. But it is just by chance. They are not connected. I wash my car, then it rains. That is a casual, a chance connection, but in no way did my washing my car cause it to rain. A causal connection is when something happens that causes the next thing to happen. I start eating less, then I lose weight. That is a causal connection (English for Students. What; Vocabeasy Causal).

      The point is; over 450 million doses of the Covid vaccines have been administered in the USA. With that great number of doses, inevitably there will be people who die or develop health problems within say a month after getting a vaccine. However, with a sample of over 450 million, there will inevitably be people who die or developed health problems within a month after administration of a dose. But that does not prove causation.

      What is needed is to compare the rate at which people develop a certain health problem or die from a certain cause who got a vaccine with the rate at which people who did not get the vaccine die for that particular reason or develop that specific health problem. Only if the former is greater than the latter is there a possible causal connection.

      The only problems such a causal connection has been established with Covid vaccines is what I reported in previous articles. But to summarize here, they are the very common side effects of pain at the injection site, of feeling fatigued, chills, and having a fever. But those all clear up with one to two days.

      The only more serious and longer lasting side effects are the very tiny increased risk of blood clots among women of childbearing age, the somewhat more common but temporary risk of distorted menstrual cycles, the very tiny risk of myocarditis (heat inflammation) among young men (15-30 years old), and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) from only the J&J vaccine. From these events, only six deaths have been recorded in the USA, out of again, over 450 million doses that have been administered (John Hopkins. Is; CDC. Selected). That is a 0.0000013% death rate. To put it in the positive, there is a 99.9999987% chance you will not die from a Covid vaccine.

      That’s it. Any other claims you hear or read of deaths or serious health problems caused by the vaccines are at best casual connection, but they are not causal connections. They have not been proven to occur at a greater rate among those who get vaccinated versus those who do not get vaccinated.

       Therefore, do not get scared off of the vaccines by claims of a multitude or serious side effects or a long list of potential side effects. Thus, for instance, a conservative news website has calculated that VAERS (as of October 3, 2021) lists “569,294 adverse event reports associated with COVID-19 vaccination in the U.S” (Just the News. More). Since this number is from five weeks earlier than the 450 million doses number, I will reduce that to 400 million doses for this date. Even with doing so, and even if that number of adverse events were due to the vaccines, that would only constitute 0.14% of those 400 million administered doses. That would mean, you would have a 99.86% chance you will not have a serious adverse reaction from a vaccine doses.

    However, each of the types of problems listed would need to be tested to see if they are occurring more often than among people who are not vaccinated or if there is an increase in such events since the vaccinations began to be administered. Such research is being done, and it is being seen that no such increase is being found. Such was the case with one study of reports of tinnitus. It was found that it is Covid itself that carries a risk of tinnitus, not the vaccines (ABC10 New. San Diego. In-Depth).

    The same webpage claimed there 8,164 deaths reported on VAERS. Even if that number was accurate, it would constitute a 0.002% death rate. Compare that to the 1.6% CFR for Covid, and you are 800 times more likely to die from a Covid infection than from a Covid vaccine dose. But again, that assumes those 8,164 deaths were in caused by the vaccine and are not just a casual coincidence. And again, only six of those deaths have been confirmed as being caused by a Covid vaccine. In that case, there is an over million times greater risk of dying from Covid than from a Covid vaccine.


On a related issue:

      … long-term or late effects that do not show up for the first time until years after inoculation, as some vaccine skeptics fear, are not possible, according to the immunologists we interviewed, and are also not known from other vaccines. This is because vaccines are rapidly broken down in the body and thus cannot trigger any lasting reactions (DW. Fact).


Are These Number Accurate?


      I know some will object to this article, claiming the numbers I am citing are not accurate. I myself have expressed concern that the death numbers could be inflated due to people dying with Covid as opposed to dying from Covid being counted as Covid deaths. I’ve explained that difference in detail in previous articles, such as in my articles Nursing Home Deaths (Inflated Coronavirus Death Rates and Government Overreach) and 12,000 not 200,000 (Comorbidities Are Killing Far More Americans Than the Coronavirus.

      I’ve also expressed the possibility that the case numbers could be underreported due to people getting infected but not getting tested. I myself could be in that category when I got sick early in the pandemic but never got tested (see Different Perspective in Dealing with the Coronavirus:  Had Either COVID-19 or the Flu and Mostly Recovered in 35 Hours). Those who have a asymptomatic infection would also add to the case numbers but would have been unlikely to have been tested early in the pandemic.

      If in fact the death numbers are inflated and the cases numbers are underreported, then both the numerator and denominator would change, and the CFR would be far lower.

      However, many authorities believe the death count is way underestimated, so the numerator should be even higher and thus the CFR higher. That is because people have died without being tested and thus their deaths were not counted as Covid deaths. That is especially the case in third world countries.

      Take India, for instance. When it had its huge surge in April 2021, people were dying before they could be tested, and they were literally burning bodies on sidewalks, as the crematoriums were overloaded. It is doubtful all of those corpses were counted. As such, the death count cited previously for India almost certainly is too low. Some authorities believe such undercounting of Covid deaths is also occurring here in the States (Trib Live/ AP. How).

      In addition, with most Covid tests, false positives are more likely than false negatives. A Covid test kit was in fact recently recalled because it had too high of a false positive rate (UC San Diego Health. More). But those false positives raise the case rate. But without then, the denominator would be lower, so the CFR would be higher. However, at home test results are not usually reported to the CDC, so any positive results are not added to the case counts (Newsmax. Home). But if they were, that would raise the denominator and lower the CFR.

      Moreover, now that I am vaccinated, there is no way for me to go back and get tested to see if I ever had Covid. That is because, I should now have antibodies, but there is no way of knowing if they are only from the vaccine or also from having had Covid. The same is true for the tens of millions of Americans who might have had Covid but are now vaccinated

      In addition, with regular testing occurring across the country, even infections of those who are asymptomatic are being caught. Such routine testing is now occurring in businesses across the country, and even more so with mandates that require either vaccination or routine Covid tests. As such, missed cases are becoming far less likely and the case count more accurate.

      All of this is to say, it is possible the case and death numbers are off. But it could go either way. Both the numerator and the denomination could either be too high or too low. But most likely, all of these factors even out, and in the end, my reported case fatality rates are probably as accurate as we are going to get.

      Evidence that these numbers are accurate is in my previously mentioned article “12,000 not 200,000.” I document there that there were 2.8 million total deaths in the USA in 2018 and in 2019. I wondered if the number of deaths would be greater in 2020 or not. If not, then the Covid death counts were overstated. If so, then they would be accurate.

      As it turned out, there were 3.2 million deaths in the USA in 2020 (Fox News. US deaths; Chicago Tribune. United States). The 352,000 recorded Covid deaths in 2020 would account for the bulk of those excess 400,000 deaths. Although, some authorities put the number of excess deaths at over 500,000 (Science Daily).

      But whatever the exact number, the rest of these excess deaths are probably due to people not receiving or delaying medical care due to a fear of Covid, an increase in opioid deaths and suicides, and an increase in murders (AIER. Drugs; CDC. Delay). Except for the first, those would be deaths caused by the lockdowns that I warned would happen from the start of the pandemic (AIER. Death). There would also be deaths caused by people seeking medical treatment but not being able to receive it due to hospitals being overwhelmed with Covid patients (New York Times. He).

     Sadly, I turned out to be correct in my warning that the lockdowns would cause deaths for the stated reasons. However, those lockdown-caused deaths and deaths caused by lack of medical treatments only collectively account for 100,000 of the excess deaths (Bloomberg. Missed). Thus, at best, only one one-quarter of the excess deaths in total could be attributed to non-Covid causes.

    Note also, these 100,000 excess non-Covid deaths in 2020 is why I think the 352k Covid deaths number in 2020 is probably more accurate than the 385k number. The latter does not leave room for these lockdown-caused deaths, unless the 500k excess deaths number is correct. But either way, the numbers are close enough to show that neither is off near as much as Covid-deniers claim. Covid has killed many 100,000s of Americans. That leads to the next point of evidence.

      I had predicted back in May of 2020 that after three years of the pandemic, there would be one million Covid deaths in the USA (see Revised Coronavirus Numbers (Healthy Habits are Your Best Defense). Very sadly, we are on track to reach that grim milestone sometime in 2022.

      I had based that prediction on just a 0.5% CFR. But I also based it on only 50% of Americans getting vaccinated and the Covid vaccine only being 50% effective, since those are the percentages for the seasonal flu vaccine. Since, at this writing (11/14/21), more than 50% of Americans have gotten fully vaccinated (59% to be more exact; New York Times. Tracking), and since the vaccines are still more than 50% effective against death, even with waning immunity and the Delta variant (> 70% in fact; Newsmax. Effectiveness), and since we will probably hit that grim milestone before three years is up, then the only way my prediction could still hold true is if the CFR is greater than 0.5%. The calculated 1.6% CFR for the USA would fit the bill.



Summary of Covid Recommendations


      The reason we will hit the grim milestone of 1,000,000 Covid deaths in the USA sometime in 2022 is because the authorities and most Americans have by and large ignored most of the recommendations I have given about Covid. Below is a summary of my recommendations:


1.       Anyone who is overweight to lose weight.

2.       Anyone who is out of shape to start exercising.

3.   Anyone with diabetes to bring it under control via natural methods (diet and exercise) if possible, medication if needed.

4.       Anyone with hypertension to bring it under control via natural methods (diet and exercise) if possible, medication if needed.

5.       Everyone get adequate sunshine or take vitamin D supplements.

6.       Everyone who tests positive for Covid be immediately given Hydroxychlotoquine + zinc.

7.       Quick use of other therapeutics as needed.

8.       Disinfect frequently touched surfaces.

9.    Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly.

10.  Utilize adequate ventilation indoors. Even something as simple as opening a window can make a big difference.

11.   Everyone who is not vaccinated or does not have natural immunity wear a mask when indoors and social distancing is not possible.

12.   Everyone who is not vaccinated or does not have natural immunity wear a mask when outdoors when in a large crowd.

13.   Everyone who is eligible and has not had Covid get vaccinated.

14.   Those who have had Covid get one dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine 3-4 months after recovery.

15. Get a booster shot (preferably Moderna) after six months after second Moderna or Pfizer shot or after two months after J&J shot.

16. Stay home when sick or if you test positive for Covid.

17. Follow other healthy habits, including consuming a healthy diet based on whole natural foods, getting adequate sleep and relaxation, and stress control.


      I discuss, explain, and provide documentation for my masks recommendations in my three-part article Does a Mask Protect the Wearer from the Coronavirus? (Three-Pronged Path to Ending this Crisis). I do the same for the rest of these points in my other Coronavirus writings posted on my politics website at Coronavirus Articles and Commentaries. For help in following the final point, see my books God-given Foods Eating Plan and Creationist Diet: Second Edition.

      However, most authorities have ignored all of this science-based advice and have focused on just masks and vaccines, while creating vaccine hesitancy by requiring masks even for those who are vaccinated and for those with natural immunity. Meanwhile, many Americans have balked at wearing masks when needed and at getting the vaccine, along ignoring most of the rest of these recommendations. That all leaves us unnecessarily and regrettably looking forward to that horrific one million Covid deaths milestone next year.


Late-Breaking Development:
Omicron Variant


      I wrote all of the preceding before November 26, 2001, and I thought I was done with this two-part article. But on that day a very important development occurred that I feel I need to cover, as some might think it negates what was just said about the Covid vaccines. It does not. But it does need to be looked at.


Previous Variants:

      As I have explained in previous articles, since the start of the pandemic, there were two versions of the Coronavirus, the original Wuhan Coronavirus and the slightly mutated European variant. The few reinfections early in the pandemic were people who got infected with one of these then the other. But they were very few. In fact, I only heard of two such cases in the first few months of the pandemic here in the USA and a couple of others elsewhere. The reason is, the European variant was only slightly different than the original, so natural immunity protected against both versions.

      But then the UK variant (renamed Alpha), came along, and it was more different form either of these than they were from each other. Then there was the Beta and Gamma variants, but not much came of them. Then the Delta variant came along, and it was and is even more different and more contagious than all of the previous variants. The latter enabled it to become the dominant variant here in the States and worldwide, with about 99% of infections now of the Delta variant. The original Wuhan virus is now basically extinct.

      With Delta much more different than the original Wuhan or European versions, reinfections become more possible. My friend who was infected twice almost certainly was infected with the European version first then Delta second. The same is probably the case for the rest of those 1% of cases from reinfections I mentioned about occurring here in Allegheny County.


The New Variant:

      But now, as I was finishing this article, there was much talk about the new South African variant, dubbed the Omicron variant. News of this variant sent the stock market tumbling on Black Friday of all days (Fox Business. Dow; Wall). It rebounded a bit on Cyber Monday, but plunged again on Giving Tuesday (Trib Live/ AP. Wall; Wall Street Journal. Stocks).

      The concern is Omicron is said to even more different from the original Wuhan virus than Delta and possibly more contagious. Being more contagious means it could potentially spread and become the dominant variant. And being more different means chances of reinfection for those who were infected with the original Wuhan virus or Europeans variants becomes greater. Even those infected with Delta could be reinfected with Omicron, due to it being considerably different even from Delta. But the thinking is it is not more lethal than previous variants (Trib Live/ AP. Explainer).

      However, at this writing, all of this is theoretical. It will take some time to see if in fact Omicron is different enough and contiguous enough to supplant Delta and to cause more reinfections, and if it is more or less lethal (WHO. Classification; Nature. Heavily). But a point to note, the current Covid tests are still accurate with Omicron, at least as much as they ever were (Fox News. Dr. Siegel). Moreover, a flaw in one type of test actually makes it easier to detect Omicron, as it did the UK variant (Alpha). That makes it easier to track its spread (Wall Street Journal. Some).

      But unknown at this time is if the vaccines will still be effective against Omicron (Fox News. WHO). The vaccines were designed for the original Wuhan virus; but again, that virus is basically extinct. That is why we are seeing so many breakthrough cases with Delta. However, Delta was still close enough to the Wuhan virus that the vaccines remain effective against hospitalizations and deaths, as I have documented throughout this article. But what is not known is if they will remain effective in this regard against Omicron.

      Many, myself included, have compared the Coronavirus booster shots to the seasonal flu vaccines. But there is a difference. The season flu vaccine changes each year, as, like the Coronavirus, the influenza virus mutates. Researchers try to guess what variant of the flu virus will be dominant in the coming year and develop a vaccine geared towards that variant. If they guess correctly, then the flu vaccine is very effective against infection. If not, then not so much.

      However, even when they guess incorrectly, the flu shot still lessens the severity of whatever symptoms the person would have gotten without the vaccine. I know that is true. Before I began getting the flu shot every year, when I got the flu, I would be sick for one to two weeks and have a temperature of up to 102.5 degrees. But now that I get it every year, the few times I have gotten sick in the past twenty years, it only lasts a few days, and my temperature has never gotten above 100 degrees (see again Different Perspective in Dealing with the Coronavirus:  Had Either COVID-19 or the Flu and Mostly Recovered in 35 Hours).

      That is what is happening with the Covid vaccines. Since they were not geared directly to Delta, they are not too good at stopping infections, but they still lessen the severity of a Covid infection. But the difference is, the boosters are the same as the original shots. They were not altered to correspond with Delta. If they had been, they most certainly would have greatly reduced not just the risk of hospitalization and death but also of infection.

      The reason they were not changed to correspond to Delta is doing so would have taken several months, and by then a new variant might have arisen and the vaccines would once again have been out of date. In the meantime, people’s immunities were lessening, and it was thought the boost against hospitalization and death was still worth giving out the original vaccines as boosters, since that could be done quickly.

      And sure enough, here we are with Omicron, so if the boosters had been altered, they would already be out of date. However, as it is, those who have gotten boosters most likely will still have protection against hospitalization and death, though breakthrough infections will probably become more common. However, over time, most likely, new boosters will be developed towards the then dominant variants, so they will be even more effective. The scenario will probably become like with the seasonal flu as researchers try to guess which variant will be dominant over the coming year.

      Pfizer and Moderna have said it would only take them 100 days to develop a variant-specific vaccine, as they were already working on doing so with Delta. But it would then need to be approved by the FDA and CDC, which would take a few more weeks. Then a few more weeks to gear up production and distribution (Fox Business. Omicron; Fox News. Dr. Siegel). Thus, it could be months before they would be available to be administered.


Still Get Vaccinated:

      Does all of this mean there is no point in getting vaccinated or a booster at this time? By no means! First off, Delta is still the dominant variant and will remain so for at least a few more weeks or months, maybe longer. It all depends on how contagious Omicron. But even if Omicron eventually becomes the dominant variant, though the vaccines might not protect against infection, they will still most likely lessen the severity of what symptoms you would have experienced without the vaccine or booster (Fox News. Dr. Siegel; Wall Street Journal. Omicron Risks).

     And the CDC is now recommending everyone 18 years old and older get boosted, not just those over 50 or with comorbidities (CDC. CDC Expands). Note also, the newer therapeutics mentioned previously might not be as effective against Omicron, so they cannot be depended upon in lieu of getting vaccinated (Wall Street Journal. Merck’s; Covid-19).

      Moreover, it takes 5-6 weeks to be considered fully vaccinated with the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines (3-4 weeks between shots then two weeks after the second shot for full immunity). If you wait until Omicron spreads, then you could very well get infected before you are able to be fully vaccinated. But if you get vaccinated now, then, by the time you need a booster, a vaccine directed towards Omicron could be available. It would then just be a matter of getting that one shot, and two weeks later, you would have full immunity.

      If you are already vaccinated, but it has been more than six months since your second shot, then your immunity is already waning, and you are open to serious infection, so getting the booster now will lessen that possibility. If it has been less than that, then wait and see if a more direct booster for Omicron is developed.

      In fact, there is some evidence it is better to wait for eight months after your second shot for a booster rather than six months. I had my dad wait that time period. As for myself, I am at six months now, but I will wait a bit and see what happens with Omicron and a booster specifically for it before getting my booster (Atlantic, The. You). But of course, if you wait that extra two months, you run the risk of getting infected before you get a booster shot. You need to consider your own life situation and what risks you will be exposed to during that time period.


J&J and Reasonable Precautions:

      As for those who got the J&J shot, if it has been more than two months, then most certainly you need to get a booster, preferably with Moderna, as your immunity is dropping quickly. After six months, it is almost as if you never got vaccinated. Again, the J&J shot should have been a two-shot vaccine in the first place (Yale Medicine. Did).

      Otherwise, the reasonable precautions listed in the previous section will still work against Omicron. However, there is no reason to panic. But that is what the authorities are causing with new travel restrictions, states of emergency, lockdowns, and other mandates already being instituted (Fox News. New York; Fox News. Omicron). But such draconian measures will work no better with Omicron than they did against previous variants, which is to say, they will do very little. But they will cause economic and physical and emotional health hardships, as I already discussed in this article and elsewhere in my Coronavirus writings.


Greek Notes:

       As the translator of the Analytical-Literal Translation of the Bible, I know Greek, and it bugs me when people who do not know Greek try to comment on something Greek and get it wrong. Thus, before closing, let me add a few technical notes on the Greek lettering system used to name variants.

       Omicron is the 15th letter in the Greek alphabet. Delta is the fourth letter, so not much came of the intervening variants. But there were only eight intervening variants, not ten, as Nu and Xi were skipped. Nu was skipped because the World Health Organization (WHO) realized the pronunciation of Nu is the same as “new,” so talk of a “Nu variant” would be confused as being of a “new variant.”

      Xi (pronounced “she”) was skipped because Xi is a common sir name in China, including the current president of the country, Xi Jinping. The Chinese Xi is pronounced differently from the Greek letter, though the correct pronunciation of the Chinese Xi is difficult for English speakers ((MSM/ CNN. WHO; ThoughtCo. How).

      Some think this skipping of Xi is WHO bowing once again to pressures by China. But in fact, it is now a stated practice of WHO to not name diseases or variants thereof with proper names, be they places or people (WHO. World). That is how we got the confusing name of Coronavirus, which is just a general term for a class of viruses, rather than the more specific Wuhan Coronavirus, that would have helped to separate this virus from say the common cold virus, which is also a coronavirus.

      On the pronunciation of Omicron, it is the short O in the Greek alphabet. The long O is Omega, the last letter of the alphabet. But I have heard newscasters, especially on CNN, pronounce Omicron with a long O. But at least President Biden and Anthony Fauci got it correct in their press conference on Monday, November 29th.


 Biden’s Press Conference:

      On Biden’s presser, he was also correct when he said, “This variant is a cause for concern, not a cause for panic” and in not calling for more lockdowns and in calling for people to be vaccinated and to get a booster when eligible. He even declared that the most protected person is someone who is fully vaccinated and boosted.

      However, he negated that statement with his continued mask-wearing. Despite being triple vaccinated, he still feels a need to wear a mask, even when he is only around those who are also fully vaccinated. The silliness was really front and center during this press conference.

    He and Fauci were both wearing masks when they entered the room. When Biden walked up to the microphone, he took off his mask as he began to speak. Fauci was still wearing one while standing a few feet to the right of Biden. But then, when Biden stepped away from the microphone to let Fauci answer a question, he put his mask back on, but Fauci took his off to speak. When Fauci finished after just a minute, he stepped away from the mic and put his mask back on, while Biden took his off as he took the mic. Then when the presser was over (after Biden answered all of four questions), as they left the room, Biden kept his mask off, but Fauci still had his on. Any thinking person just looks at such a scene and cannot but wonder at the silliness.

      But that aside, don’t let Biden’s mask silliness led you to think the vaccines don’t work. They do. And once you are fully vaccinated, you do not need to wear a mask, unless you are going to be close to someone who is not vaccinated and is at high risk from Covid. But even then, it should be on the unvaccinated to protect themselves, not on the vaccinated to protect them from their own stubbornness.



     Let me end this lengthy article with the obligatory disclaimer that you talk to your own doctor about what advice in this article you should follow. Only you and your doctor know your own unique health situation, and a discussion between the two of you is the best way to determine the best course of action for you to protect yourself from Covid, including Delta and the new Omicron variant.



See Statistical Refutations of Covid Deniers and Antivaxxers: References.


Statistical Refutations of Covid Deniers and Antivaxxers): Part Two. Copyright © 2021 by Gary F. Zeolla (


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