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Introductory Pages and Appendices for the Second Edition
The Second Edition of the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament (ALT2) is now available in paperback, hardback, and Acrobat Reader® eBook formats. It can be ordered from the publisher via their Web site AuthorHouse or by calling toll-free: 1-888-280-7715. Further details on the ALT2 can be found at Analytical-Literal Translation Preview and the ALT subweb of Darkness to Light's site.
Below are the Introductory Pages and Appendices that appear in the ALT2.
Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible:
Translated by Gary F. Zeolla
Copyright © 2005 by Gary F. Zeolla of Darkness to Light ministry (www.zeolla.org/christian).
Previously copyrighted © 1999, 2001 by Gary F. Zeolla.
All rights reserved.
About the Book
The Analytical-Literal Translation (ALT) is the most accurate translation of the New Testament available. Its name reflects its main features.
“Literal” refers to the ALT being a word for word translation. All words in the original Greek text are translated. The original grammar is retained as much as possible. Words added for clarity are bracketed.
“Analytical” refers to the detailed “analysis” done on the grammar of the text, which is then translated in a way that brings out “nuances” often missed in other translations. “Analytical” also refers to aids included within the text which enable the reader to “analyze” and understand the text.
The ALT is based on the most up-to-date and accurate Greek Text, the Byzantine Majority Text: Second Edition.
Abbreviations and Notations
The New Testament:
According to Matthew
According to Mark
According to Luke
According to John
The Acts of the Apostles
To the Romans
First Epistle to the Corinthians
Second Epistle to the Corinthians
To the Galatians
To the Ephesians
To the Philippians
To the Colossians
First Epistle to the Thessalonians
Second Epistle to the Thessalonians
First Epistle to Timothy
Second Epistle to Timothy
To the Hebrews
The Epistle Of James
First Epistle of Peter
Second Epistle of Peter
First Epistle of John
Second Epistle of John
Third Epistle of John
The Epistle of Jude
#1 - Important Textual Variants
#2 - Translation Decisions and Explanations of Notations
#3 - Publication Notes
#4 - Books and eBooks by the Translator
#5 - Web Sites and Newsletters by the Translator/ Contacting the Translator
To ensure the purity of the text, the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible (ALT) is copyrighted. The copyright holder is Gary F. Zeolla. The policy for reprinting and quoting the ALT is as follows:
The Analytical-Literal Translation may be quoted and/or reprinted up to and inclusive of one thousand (1,000) verses without express written consent of the copyright holder, providing the verses quoted do not constitute more than 50% of a particular book of the Bible nor account for more than 50% of the total work in which they are quoted.
It is permissible to omit bracketed material, such as alternate translations, figurative meanings, and explanatory notes (but not words added for clarity), when quoting the ALT in print or in public reading. But otherwise, all quotations must conform accurately to the ALT text. The following notice of copyright must appear on the title or copyright page of any written work:
Scripture taken from the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible: Second Edition. Copyright © 2005 by Gary F. Zeolla of Darkness to Light ministry (www.zeolla.org/christian). Previously copyrighted © 1999, 2001 by Gary F. Zeolla.
When quotations from the ALT are used in media not for sale, the initials “ALT” should appear at the end of each quotation. When it is necessary to distinguish between the first and second editions of the ALT, the abbreviation ALT1 should be used for the first edition and ALT2 for the second edition.
Quotations and/or reprints in excess of one thousand (1,000) verses or other permission requests must be directed to and approved in writing by Gary F. Zeolla. See Appendix #5 for details on contacting the translator.
The Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible (ALT) is dedicated to the glory of God and the spiritual growth of His people. It is translated by Gary F. Zeolla of Darkness to Light ministry (www.zeolla.org/christian).
The purpose of the ALT is to provide a translation of the Greek New Testament that will enable the reader to come as close to the Greek text as possible without actually having to be proficient in Greek. And the name of the ALT reflects this purpose.
“Literal” refers to the fact that the ALT is a word for word translation. All words in the original text are translated--nothing is omitted. The original grammar of the text is retained as much as possible. Any words added for clarity are bracketed, so nothing is added without it being indicated as such.
“Analytical” refers to the detailed “analysis” done on the grammar of the text. The grammar is then translated in a way which brings out “nuances” of the original text that are often missed in traditional translations.
In addition, “analytical” refers to the aids that are included within the text which enable the reader to “analyze” and understand the text. Such information is bracketed. It includes the following:
- Alternative translations for words and phrases.
- The figurative meanings of words and phrases.
- Modern-day equivalents for measurement and monetary units and time designations.
- Explanatory notes.
- References for Old Testament quotations and other cross-references.
The Greek text used for the ALT is the Byzantine Majority Text.1 The ALT is one of the first translations of the New Testament to utilize this newest and most accurate Greek text. This second edition of the ALT even includes all the updates that were made for the forthcoming second edition of the Byzantine text. So the ALT is based on the most up-to-date and accurate Greek text possible.
This Greek text differs somewhat from the Textus Receptus and the Critical Text, the two other Greek texts which are used for translating the Bible. To aid in comparing the ALT with other Bible versions, the most important textual variants between these three Greek texts are listed in an appendix.
So the ALT is the ideal Bible version for studying the Bible. No other Bible version includes all of the above features, and no other Bible version provides the accuracy and attention to detail that the ALT provides.
In preparation for this second edition, the entire text was reviewed numerous times. Changes were made to improve the accuracy and consistency of the translations and to improve the readability. The text was also reformatted so as to reduce the size and cost and to improve the ease of use. So this second edition represents an updated, less expensive, and easier to use version of the ALT.
This second edition of the Analytical-Literal Translation is being presented to the Christian public in the belief that the Scriptures are “God-breathed” and that EVERY word of God is important to our salvation and Christian life. As the Scriptures proclaim:
4But answering, He said, “It has been written, ‘A person will not live on bread alone, but on every word coming out through [the] mouth of God’” (Matthew 4:4).
28But He said, “But rather, happy [are] the ones hearing the word of God and keeping [fig., obeying] [it]!” (Luke 11:28).
30Now indeed many other signs Jesus also did in the presence of His disciples which have not been written in this scroll. 31But these have been written so that you* shall believe [or, be convinced] that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and so that believing you* shall be having life in His name (John 20:30,31).
16All Scripture [is] God-breathed and [is] beneficial for teaching [or, doctrine], for verification [or, reproof], for correcting faults, for instruction in righteousness [fig., the behavior that God requires], 17so that the person of God shall be fully qualified [or, perfectly fit], having been completely equipped for every good work (2Timothy 3:16,17).
12For the word of God [is] living and effective and sharper than every double-edged sword, and [is] penetrating as far as [the] division of both soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and [is] able to discern [the] thoughts and intentions of the heart (Hebrews 4:12).
5And the One sitting on the throne said, “Look! I am making all things new!” And He says to me, “Write, because these words are true and trustworthy” (Revelation 21:5).
1Specifically: The Greek New Testament: Byzantine Textform. Second Edition. Complied, arranged, and thoroughly updated by Maurice A. Robinson and William G. Pierpont. Publication forthcoming. Dr. Robinson graciously provided a list of all of the updates for the forthcoming text to the translator of the ALT so that this ALT could include these updates. Many thanks to him in this regard.
The ALT follows the main Byzantine text but does not express the footnoted, alternate readings of the text. These indicate places where the Byzantine Greek manuscripts are closely divided. But a list of these alternative readings is posted on the ALT section of Darkness to Light’s Web site (www.zeolla.org/christian/alt).
Abbreviations and Notations
Following are the meanings of abbreviations and notations seen in the ALT text. More detailed explanations of these notations are given in Appendix #2.
Abbreviations and Notations in Brackets
[the] -- Words added for clarity are bracketed. Within bracketed alternative translations, bracketed words indicate words added for clarity, i.e. “[or, the kingdom [of Satan]]” (Matt 8:12) indicates the words “of Satan” are added.
[Isaiah 7:14] -- Reference for the preceding OT quote. The quote itself is in italics.
“Yahweh is Salvation” -- Meaning of a proper name, placed in quotation marks.
About -- Modern-day equivalent for measurements and monetary units.
and elsewhere in -- The bracketed information applies to other occurrences of the preceding word or phrase in the given range, but not necessarily to all occurrences.
and throughout/ and in -- The bracketed information applies to all occurrences of the preceding word or phrase throughout the given range.
cp. -- Cross reference (“compare”).
fig. -- Possible figurative meaning or paraphrase of preceding literal translation.
Gr. -- Transliteration of the Greek word previously translated.
i.e. -- Explanatory note (“that is” or “in explanation”).
LXX -- Septuagint. The OT quote is taken from this third century B.C., Greek translation of the Hebrew OT instead of the Hebrew text.
NT -- New Testament
OT -- Old Testament
or -- Alternative, traditional, or slightly less literal translation.
see -- Cross reference.
Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Notations
ALT -- Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible
LORD -- Lord -- The former indicates the OT verse from which the quote is taken has Yahweh (the Hebrew proper name for God). The latter indicates the OT has adonai (the general word for “lord”).
But -- Indicates the use of the Greek strong adversative (alla) instead of the weak adversative (de, translated as “but” when used in an adversative sense).
you -- Indicates the pronoun is emphasized in the Greek text (also, he, she, etc.).
you* -- Indicates the original is plural (also, your*). With no asterisk the second person pronoun is singular.
Note: For further details on these books, see Books by the Director.
Important Textual Variants
See Most Important Textual Variants in the New Testament.
Translation Decisions and
Explanations of Notations
See Translation Decisions and Explanations of Notations.
This Analytical-Literal Translation is the ideal Bible version for personal Bible study. However, for more general purposes, there is the possibility of sometime in the future publishing an Analytical-Literal Translation: Devotional Version (ALT-DV).
The ALT-DV would be more of a standard formal equivalence version, like the New King James Version® or the New American Standard Bible®. But the unique feature would be that the ALT-DV would be based on the Byzantine Majority Text while these versions are based on somewhat different Greek texts, namely the Textus Receptus and the Critical Text, respectively.
The idea behind the ALT-DV is this: the ALT is the ideal version to use for personal Bible study. But due to its literalness and the analytical bracketed materials, the ALT can be rather awkward to use for such purposes as personal devotional reading, reading aloud in church services or Bible studies, or even for evangelism. But the ALT-DV would fill devotional and other such needs with a Majority Text based version.
Other than the ALT, there are currently only a couple of versions available which are based on the Majority Text. Meanwhile, there are dozens if not hundreds of versions available based on the Textus Receptus or the Critical Text.
The ALT-DV would still be “literal” in that any significant deviations from a literal translation would be footnoted. It would also be “analytical” in that bracketed analytical materials from the ALT would be footnoted. However, in some cases an alternate translation, less-literal translation, or a figurative rendering would be used in the text and the more literal reading footnoted.
Whether an ALT-DV is ever produced will depend on the popularity of the ALT itself and on the demand for a devotional version thereof. To express your opinion in this regard, please contact the translator (see Appendix #4).
Also, please note that there are currently no plans to produce an Old Testament to go along with the ALT: New Testament. There would be nothing distinctly unique about an ALT: OT. There are not different texts being used to translate the OT as there is with the NT. Most Old Testaments available are based on the Masoretic Hebrew Text, as an ALT: OT would be. So an ALT: OT would simply a duplication of the effort of others.
For a literal translation of the OT, it is recommended the reader attain a copy of the Literal Translation of the Bible, available from: www.chrlitworld.com ~ (800) 447-9142. Recommended formal equivalence translations of the OT can be found in the New King James Version or the New American Standard Bible.
Books and eBooks
by the Translator
In addition to being the translator of the ALT, Gary F. Zeolla is also the author of seven books. All seven books are available in Microsoft Reader® eBook format from the “Books and eBooks by the Director” section of Darkness to Light’s Web site (www.zeolla.org/christian/books).
Four of the books are also available in paperback and in Acrobat Reader® eBook formats from the publisher via their Web site: www.AuthorHouse.com. The paperbacks can also be ordered by calling toll-free 1-888-280-7715. They are also available from Amazon.com and other online bookstores.
Companion Volume to the ALT
This eBook contains extensive background information on the Analytical-Literal Translation. It will aid the reader in understanding not only why the ALT is translated in the manner it is but also the reasons why other versions are as well.
Included in this volume is an eight-part “Grammatical Renderings” section. It explains the reasons for the somewhat unique translation of Greek tenses seen in the ALT, while comparing the ALT style of translation to that of other versions. It also explains other nuances of Greek grammar which are brought out in the ALT but which are often missed in other versions. This section is detailed enough to be used as a primer on Greek grammar. It also enables the reader to understand why Bible versions differ in their translations of the particulars of Greek grammar.
In addition, the Companion Volume includes a glossary explaining the reasons for how important words are translated in the ALT. Also included is a list of reference works which were consulted while working on the ALT. Primary among these was BibleWorks for Windows®. This program and the many lexicons and other aids on it were indispensable in translating the ALT.
The Companion Volume also includes other information helpful in understanding the translations seen in the ALT versus other versions.
Complete Concordance for the ALT
(with Reese Currie; eBook)
This eBook indexes every occurrence of most words in the Analytical-Literal Translation. Only minor words are omitted (e.g., a, and, but, the). Sufficient context is provided for the reader to recognize the verse or to get the gist of it.
This concordance will enable the reader to quickly find a verse in the ALT. It will also be invaluable in doing topical studies in the ALT. Looking up every reference to a word like “grace” will enable the reader to do a study on this important Biblical topic.
The ALT is the ideal version to use for such in-depth Bible study, and having this concordance to use as reference tool will improve these studies.
Differences Between Bible Versions:
Updated and Expanded Edition
(paperback and eBook)
This book answers such questions as: Why do Bible versions differ? Why does the same verse read differently in different versions? Why do some versions contain words, phrases, and even entire verses that other versions omit? Which Bible versions are most reliable? These and many other questions are answered in this book.
This book contains extensive discussions on why the translator of the ALT believes either a literal or a formal equivalence (“word-for-word”) translation principle is the best method to use for translating the Bible. These principles of translating are contrasted with the dynamic equivalence (“phrase for phrase”) and paraphrase methods seen in many modern Bible versions.
In addition, this book includes detailed discussions on why the translator believes the Byzantine Majority Text is the most accurate of the three Greek texts used in Bible translation.
This book also contains an extended section critiquing the claims of “KJV only-ists” (those who claim the King James Version is the only “real” Bible).
In addressing these various issues, Differences Between Bible Versions compares over thirty different versions of the Bible. ISBN: 0-75962-501-8
The New World Translation:
A Reliable Bible Version?
This eBook evaluates the NWT, the Bible of Jehovah's Witnesses. The NWT is reviewed by looking at select passages from Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians. The standards used are the same standards that are used in the book Differences Between Bible Versions. Simply put, does the translation faithfully and accurately render the Greek text into English?
More specifically, are words translated correctly? Are words left untranslated? Are words added without any indication that they have been added? Are the grammatical forms of words altered? Are phrases paraphrased rather than translated? How readable is the text? How reliable is the Greek text being used?
For Personal Bible Study and Teaching the Bible
(paperback and eBook)
This book contains twenty-two individual Scripture Studies. Each study focuses on one general area of study. These studies enable individuals to do in-depth, topical studies of the Bible. They are also invaluable to the Bible study teacher preparing lessons for Sunday School or a home Bible study.
The range of topics covered in the different studies is broad: from what the Bible teaches about itself to what the Bible teaches about divorce and remarriage. Contained in each study are hundreds of Scripture references. So there will be no lack of material from which to begin your studies. ISBN: 1-58721-893-3
Nutrition and God-given Foods According to the Bible
(paperback and eBook)
This book answers such questions as: What did God give to human beings for food? What does the Bible teach about diet and nutrition? How do the Biblical teachings on foods compare to scientific research on nutrition and degenerative disease like heart disease, cancer, and stroke?
In answering these questions, the book starts with God's decrees about foods at Creation, the Fall, and after the Flood, and gleans nutrition information from the rest of the Bible, while correlating this information with scientific research.
Overcoming Back Pain
I powerlifted in college, but back pain forced me to stop weightlifting. Eventually, the back pain worsened to the point where I was crippled by it for six years. I tried various traditional and alternative treatments, but all to no avail. But then by utilizing mind-body techniques I was able to completely overcome the back pain, so much so that I was able to start powerlifting again. This eBook discusses all of the treatments I tried and what finally worked.
Web Sites and Newsletters
by the Translator
Gary F. Zeolla is the Webmaster for two different Web sites, both of which offer a free email newsletter. Subscription information for the newsletters can be found on the Web sites.
Darkness to Light
Darkness to Light ministry is dedicated to explaining and defending the Christian faith. Currently available on the site are over 800 Web pages, eight books and eBooks, and a free email newsletter. In these materials, a wide range of topics are covered, including: theology, apologetics, cults, ethics, Bible versions, and much more. So you are sure to find something of interest.
The name for the ministry is taken from the following verse:
“… to open their eyes [in order] to turn [them] back from darkness [i.e., falsehood and unrighteousness] to light [i.e. truth and righteousness] and [from] the authority of Satan to God, [in order for] them to receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among the ones having been sanctified by faith in Me” (Acts 26:18; ALT2).
The words “darkness” and “light” have a wide range of meanings when used metaphorically in Scripture, but basically (as the ALT indicates), “darkness” refers to falsehood and unrighteousness while “light” refers to truth and righteousness. People turn from darkness to light when they come to believe the teachings of the Bible and live in accordance with them.
Fitness for One and All
I have a B.S. in Nutrition Science and am a certified personal fitness trainer. I currently hold seven International Powerlifting Association world records. And these records were set after over 20 years of dealing with a variety of serious health problems.
First I was crippled with low back pain. Then I sustained numerous injuries in a near-fatal bicycle accident. Then I was crippled with fibromyalgia pain and fatigue. And finally, I was paralyzed with stiff person syndrome (a very rare auto-immune disorder). I also have suffered with many less serious health problems over the years. But I overcame these problems sufficiently to be able to compete in powerlifting again.
With all I have been through, overcome, and accomplished, it is now my passion to help others achieve their health, fitness, and performance goals. To that end, I set up Fitness for One and All Web site.
Currently available on the site are over 250 Web pages, two books and eBooks, and a free email newsletter. These materials are directed towards a wide range of people, including beginning fitness enthusiasts, athletes, powerlifters, and those dealing with health problems. The name “Fitness for One and All” reflects this diversity of covered topics.
Contacting the Translator
The translator of the ALT can be contacted by using the comments forms on Darkness to Light's Web site and on Fitness for One and All’s Web site. Click on the “Contact Information” link near the bottom of any page on either Web site.
About the Translator
Gary F. Zeolla is the director of Darkness to Light. This ministry addresses Christian theology, defense of the faith, cults, ethics, and many other issues. Research for these topics and Zeolla’s own Bible studies led to his Scripture Workbook: For Personal Bible Study and Teaching the Bible. Also addressed is the subject of Bible versions. This research led to Zeolla’s book Differences Between Bible Versions and his Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament.
Zeolla also directs Fitness for One and All, which is dedicated to helping people attain their health, fitness, and performance goals. His efforts in this area and his love of the Bible led to his book Creationist Diet: Nutrition and God-given Foods According to the Bible.
The Second Edition of the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament is now available in paperback, hardback, and Acrobat Reader® eBook formats. It can be ordered from the publisher via their Web site AuthorHouse or by calling toll-free: 1-888-280-7715. Further details on the ALT2 can be found at Analytical-Literal Translation Preview and the ALT subweb of Darkness to Light's site.
The above items were posted on this Web site December 12, 2000.
They were updated to the second edition January 30, 2005.
ALT: Background Pages
Analytical-Literal Translation: Main Page
ALT: Hardcopy and eBook Formats
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